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Instagram is an American photo and video sharing social networking service founded by Kevin Systrom and Mike Krieger. In April 2012, Facebook Inc. acquired the service for approximately US$1 billion in moneyand stock. The applicationlet users to upload media that shouldbe edited with filters and organized by hashtags and geographical tagging. Publication shouldbe shared publicly or with pre-approved followers. Registrar shouldbrowse other users' materialby tags and area and view trending content. Registrar can like image and follow other users to add their materialto a personal feed.

Instagram was originally distinguished by only allowing materialto be framed in a square (1:1) aspect ratio with 640 pixels to match the display width of the iPhone at the time. In 2015, these restrictions were eased with an increase to 1080 pixels. The service also added messaging features, the ability to containmultiple photo or videos in a single post, and a 'stories' feature—similar to its main opposition Snapchat—which let users to publicationimage and videos to a sequential feed, with each publicationavailableby others for 24 hours each. As of January 2019, the Stories feature is utilize by 500 million users daily.

Originally launched for iOS in October 2010, Instagram rapidly gained popularity, with one million registered users in two months, 10 million in a year, and 1 billion as of June 2018. The Android version was released in April 2012, followed by a feature-limited desktop interface in November 2012, a Fire OS applicationin June 2014, and an applicationfor Windows 10 in October 2016. As of October 2015, over 40 billion image had been uploaded. Although praised for its influence, Instagram has been the topicof criticism, most notably for the negative impact on teens' mental health, policiesand interface modify, allegations of censorship, and illegal or improper materialuploaded by users.

As of June 2021, the most followed person is Portuguese professional footballer Cristiano Ronaldo with over 300 million followers. As of January 14, 2019, the most-liked imageon Instagram is a picture of an egg, posted by the account @world_record_egg, madewith the sole purpose of surpassing the previous record of 18 million likes on a Kylie Jenner post. As of January 2019, the picture has over 55 million likes. The second most-liked imageis a wedding imageof Ariana Grande and her husband Dalton Gomez. Instagram was the fourth most downloaded mobile applicationof the 2010s.


Instagram Icon since 2016

Instagram began development in San Francisco as Burbn, a mobile check-in applicationmadeby Kevin Systrom and Mike Krieger. Realizing that Burbn was too similar to Foursquare, Systrom and Krieger refocused their applicationon photo-sharing, which had become a famousfeature among Burbn users. They renamed the applicationInstagram, a portmanteau of "instant camera" and "telegram".

2010–2011: Beginnings and major funding

On March 5, 2010, Systrom closed a $500,000 seed funding round with Baseline Ventures and Andreessen Horowitz while working on Burbn. Josh Riedel joined the organizationin October as Community Manager, Shayne Sweeney joined in November as an engineer, and Jessica Zollman joined as a Community Evangelist in August 2011.

The first Instagram publicationwas a imageof South Beach Harbor at Pier 38, posted by Mike Krieger at 5:26 PM on July 16, 2010. Systrom shared his first post, a picture of a dog and his girlfriend's foot, a few hours later at 9:24 PM. It has been wrongly attributed as the first Instagram imagedue to the earlier letter of the alphabet in its URL.[better source needed] On October 6, 2010, the Instagram iOS applicationwas officially released through the ApplicationStore.

In February 2011, it was reported that Instagram had raised $7 million in Series A funding from a variety of investors, including Benchmark Capital, Jack Dorsey, Chris Sacca (through Capital fund), and Adam D'Angelo. The deal valued Instagram at around $20 million. In April 2012, Instagram raised $50 million from venture capitalists with a $500 million valuation. Joshua Kushner was the second biggestinvestor in Instagram's Series B fundraising round, leading his investment firm, Thrive Capital, to double its cashafter the sale to Facebook.

2012–2014: Additional platforms and acquisition by Facebook

On April 3, 2012, Instagram released a version of its applicationfor Android telephone, and it was downloaded more than one million times in less than one day. The Android applicationhas since get two significant updates: first, in March 2014, which cut the file size of the applicationby half and added performance improvements; then in April 2017, to add an offline mode that let users to view and interact with materialwithout an Internet connection. At the time of the announcement, it was reported that 80% of Instagram's 600 million users were located outside the U.S., and while the aforementioned functionality was live at its announcement, Instagram also announced its intention to make more features accessibleoffline, and that they were "exploring an iOS version".

On April 9, 2012, Facebook, Inc. bought Instagram for $1 billion in moneyand stock, with a plan to holdthe organizationindependently managed. Britain's Office of Fair Trading approved the deal on August 14, 2012, and on August 22, 2012, the Federal Trade Commission in the U.S. closed its investigation, allowing the deal to proceed. On September 6, 2012, the deal between Instagram and Facebook officially closed with a purchase price of $300 million in moneyand 23 million shares of stock.

The deal closed just before Facebook's scheduled initial public offering according to CNN. The deal price was compared to the $35 million Yahoo! paid for Flickr in 2005. Mark Zuckerberg said Facebook was "committed to building and growing Instagram independently." According to Wired, the deal netted Systrom $400 million.

In November 2012, Instagram launched domainprofiles, allowing anyone to see utilize feeds from a web browser with limited functionality, as well as a selection of badges, web widget buttons to link to profiles.

Since the applications beginit had utilize the Foursquare API technology to provide named areatagging. In March 2014, Instagram started to tryand switch the technology to use Facebook Territory.

2015–2017: Redesign and Windows app

In June 2015, the desktop website utilize interface was redesigned to become more flat and minimalistic, but with more screen zonefor each imageand to resemble the layout of Instagram's mobile website. Furthermore, one row of pictures only has three instead of five image to match the mobile layout. The slideshow banner on the top of profile site, which simultaneously slide-showed seven picture tiles of pictures posted by the utilize, alternating at different times in a random order, has been removed. In addition, the formerly angular profile pictures became circular.

In April 2016, Instagram released a Windows 10 Mobile app, after years of demand from Microsoft and the public to release an applicationfor the platform. The platform previously had a beta version of Instagram, first released on November 21, 2013, for Windows Telephone8. The freshapplicationadded assistancefor videos (viewing and creating publication or stories, and viewing live streams), album publication and direct messages. Similarly, an applicationfor Windows 10 privatecomputers and tablets was released in October 2016. In May, Instagram updated its mobile domainto letusers to upload image, and to add a "lightweight" version of the Explore tab.

On May 11, 2016, Instagram revamped its design, adding a black-and-white flat design theme for the applications utilize interface, and a less skeuomorphistic, more , "modern" and colorful icon. Rumors of a redesign first started circulating in April, when The Verge get a screenshot from a tipster, but at the time, an Instagram spokesperson simply told the postthat it was only a concept.

On December 6, 2016, Instagram introduced comment liking. However, unlike publicationlikes, the utilize who posted a comment does not getnotifications about comment likes in their notification inbox. Uploaders shouldoptionally decide to deactivate comments on a post.

The mobile web front end let uploading pictures since May 4, 2017. Photofilters and the ability to upload videos were not introduced then.

On April 30, 2019, the Windows 10 Mobile applicationwas discontinued, though the mobile domainremains accessibleas a progressive web application (PWA) with limited functionality. The applicationremains accessibleon Windows 10 computers and tablets, also updated to a PWA in 2020.

2018–2019: IGTV, removal of the like counter, management modify

To comply with the GDPR regulations regarding data portability, Instagram introduced the ability for users to download an archive of their utilize data in April 2018.

IGTV launched on June 20, 2018, as a standalone video application.

On September 24, 2018, Krieger and Systrom announced in a statement they would be stepping down from Instagram. On October 1, 2018, it was announced that Adam Mosseri would be the freshhead of Instagram.

During Facebook F8, it was announced that Instagram would, beginning in Canada, pilot the removal of publicly-displayed "like" counts for materialposted by other users. Like counts would only be visible to the utilize who originally posted the content. Mosseri stated that this was intended to have users "worry a little bit less about how many likes they're getting on Instagram and spend a bit more time connecting with the people that they vehicle about." It has been argued that low numbers of likes in relativity to others could contribute to a lower self-esteem in users. The pilot began in May 2019, and was extended to 6 other markets in July. The pilot was expanded worldwide in November 2019. Also in July 2019, Instagram announced that it would implement freshfeatures plannedto reduce harassment and negative comments on the service.

In August 2019, Instagram also began to pilot the removal of the "Following" tab from the app, which had permittedusers to view a feed of the likes and comments angry by users they follow. The modifywas angry official in October, with head of product Vishal Shah stating that the feature was underused and that some users were "surprised" when they realized their activity was being surfaced in this manner.

In October 2019, Instagram introduced a limit on the number of publication visible in sitescrolling mode unless logged in. Until this point, public profiles had been accessibleto all users, even when not logged in. Following the change, after viewing a number of publication a pop-up requires the utilize to log in to continue viewing content.

2020–present: Freshfeatures

In March 2020, Instagram launched a freshfeature called "Co-Watching". The freshfeature let users to share publication with each other over video calls. According to Instagram, they pushed forward the beginof Co-Watching in order to meet the demand for virtually connecting with mate and family due to social distancing as a effectof the COVID-19 pandemic.

In August 2020, Instagram launched a freshfeature called "Reels". The feature is similar to TikTok. Instagram also added recommendedpublication in August 2020. After scrolling through publication from the past 48 hours, Instagram displays publication associatedto their interests from acc they do not follow.

In February 2021, Instagram began testing a freshfeature called Vertical Stories, said by some sources to be inspired by TikTok. The same month, they also began testing the removal of ability to share feed publication to stories.

In March 2021, Instagram launched a freshfeature in which four people shouldgo live at once. Instagram also announced that adults would not be permittedto message teens who don't follow them as part of a series of freshkidsecuritypolicies.

In May 2021, Instagram began allowing users in some regions to add pronouns to their profile page.

On October 4, 2021, Facebook had its worst outage since 2008. The outage also affected other platforms owned by Facebook, such as Instagram and WhatsApp. Safetyexperts identified the issueas possibly being DNS-related.

Negative resulton teenage girls’ mental health

Facebook has known for years that its Instagram applicationis harmful to a number of teenagers, according to research seen by the Wall RoadJournal, but the organizationconcealed the knowledge from lawmakers.

Internal Facebook presentations seen by the WSJ in 2021 presentthat Instagram is toxic to a sizable percentage of its users, particularly teenage girls. More than 40% of Instagram’s users are under 23 years old.

“We make body photoproblemsworse for one in three teen girls,” said a slide from a 2019 presentation. “Teens blame Instagram for increases in the rate of anxiety and depression,” said another. “This reaction was unprompted and consistent across all groups.”

The presentations were seen by the organizations executives and the findings mentioned to Mark Zuckerberg in 2020. But when asked in March 2021 about Instagram’s resulton young people, Zuckerberg defended the organizations plan to beginan Instagram product for kidsunder 13.

When asked by senators for its internal findings on the impact of Instagram on youth mental health, Facebook sent a six-siteletter but did not containthe organizations research. The organizationtold Forbes its research is “kept confidential to promote frank and open dialogue and brainstorming internally.”

In a blog post, Instagram said the WSJ story "focuses on a limited set of findings and casts them in a negative light."

On September 27, 2021, weeks after the WSJ report was released, Facebook announced it "paused" development of Instagram Child, the Instagram product aimed at children. The organizationstated it was looking into concerns raised by the regulators and parents. Adam Mosseri stated that the organizationwould return to the project as "[t]he reality is that child are already online, and we trustthat developing age-appropriate experiences plannedspecifically for them is far better for parents than where we are today."

Features and tools

An original photograph (left) is automatically cropped to a square by Instagram, and has a filter added at the selection of the utilize (right).
A imagecollage of an unprocessed image (top left) modified with the 16 different Instagram filters accessiblein 2011

Registrar shouldupload photographs and short videos, follow other users' feeds, and geotag photo with the name of a location. Registrar shouldset their accas "private", thereby requiring that they approve any freshfollower requests. Registrar shouldconnect their Instagram accto other social networking page, enabling them to share uploaded image to those page. In September 2011, a freshversion of the applicationcontain freshand live filters, instant tilt–shift, high-resolution photographs, optional borders, one-click rotation, and an updated icon. Image were initially restricted to a square, 1:1 aspect ratio; since August 2015, the applicationassistance portrait and widescreen aspect ratios as well. Registrar could formerly view a map of a utilize's geotagged image. The feature was removed in September 2016, citing low usage.

Since December 2016, publication shouldbe "saved" into a personallocationof the app. The feature was updated in April 2017 to allowusers organize saved publication into named collections. Registrar shouldalso "archive" their publication in a personalstorage area, out of visibility for the public and other users. The move was seen as a methodto prevent users from deleting image that don't garner a desired number of "likes" or are deemed boring, but also as a methodto limit the "emergent behavior" of deleting image, which deprives the service of content. In August, Instagram announced that it would start organizing comments into threads, letting users more easily interact with replies.

Since February 2017, up to ten pictures or videos shouldbe contain in a single post, with the materialappearing as a swipeable carousel. The feature originally limited image to the square format, but get an update in August to enable portrait and landscape image instead.

In April 2018, Instagram launched its version of a portrait mode called "focus mode," which gently blurs the background of a imageor video while keeping the topicin focus when selected. In November, Instagram began to support Alt text to add descriptions of image for the visually impaired. They are either generated automatically using object recognition (using existing Facebook technology) or manually specified by the uploader.

On March 1, 2021, Instagram launched a freshfeature named Instagram Live "Rooms" AllowFour People Go Live Together.

In May 2021, Instagram announced a freshaccessibility feature for videos on Instagram Reels and Stories to letcreators to territoryclosed captions on their content.


In January 2011, Instagram introduced hashtags to assistusers uncoverboth image and each other. Instagram encourages users to make tags both specific and relevant, rather than tagging generic words like "photo", to make photographs stand out and to attract like-minded Instagram users.

Registrar on Instagram have created "trends" through hashtags. The trends deemed the most famouson the platform often highlight a specific day of the week to publicationthe contenton. Examples of famoustrends include #SelfieSunday, in which users publicationa imageof their faces on Sundays; #MotivationMonday, in which users publicationmotivational image on Mondays; #TransformationTuesday, in which users publicationimage highlighting differences from the past to the present; #WomanCrushWednesday, in which users publicationimage of women they have a romantic interest in or view favorably, as well as its #ManCrushMonday counterpart centered on men; and #ThrowbackThursday, in which users publicationa imagefrom their past, highlighting a particular moment.

In December 2017, Instagram began to letusers to follow hashtags, which display relevant highlights of the subjectin their feeds.


In June 2012, Instagram introduced "Explore", a tab inside the applicationthat displays famousimage, image taken at nearby area, and search. The tab was updated in June 2015 to feature trending tags and territory, curated content, and the ability to findfor area. In April 2016, Instagram added a "Videos You Might Like" channel to the tab, followed by an "Happening" channel in August, featuring videos from concerts, sports games, and other live happening, followed by the addition of Instagram Stories in October. The tab was later expanded again in November 2016 after Instagram Live launched to display an algorithmically-curated siteof the "best" Instagram Live videos currently airing. In May 2017, Instagram once again updated the Explore tab to promote public Stories materialfrom nearby territory.

Photographic filters

Instagram offers a number of photographic filters that users shouldapply to their photo. In February 2012, Instagram added a "Lux" filter, an resultthat "lightens shadows, darkens highlights and increases contrast". In December 2014, Slumber, Crema, Ludwig, Aden, and Perpetua were five freshfilters to be added to the Instagram filter family.


Initially a purely photo-sharing service, Instagram incorporated 15-second video sharing in June 2013. The addition was seen by some in the technology media as Facebook's attempt at competing with the then-famousvideo-sharing application Vine. In August 2015, Instagram added assistancefor widescreen videos. In March 2016, Instagram increased the 15-second video limit to 60 seconds. Albums were introduced in February 2017, which letup to 10 minutes of video to be shared in one post.


IGTV is a vertical video applaunched by Instagram in June 2018. Primaryfunctionality is also accessiblewithin the Instagram applicationand website. IGTV let uploads of up to 10 minutes in length with a file size of up to 650 MB, with verified and famoususers permittedto upload videos of up to 60 minutes in length with a file size of up to 5.4 GB. The applicationautomatically launch playing videos as soon as it is launched, which CEO Kevin Systrom contrasted to video hosts where one must first locate a video.


In November 2019, it was reported that Instagram had begun to pilot a freshvideo feature known as "Reels" in Brazil, expanding to France and Germany afterwards. It is similar in functionality to the Chinese video-sharing service TikTok, with a focus on allowing users to record short videos set to pre-existing sound clips from other publication. Registrar could make up to 15 (later 30) second videos using this feature. Reels also integrates with existing Instagram filters and editing tools.

In July 2020, Instagram rolled out Reels to India after TikTok was banned in the country. The following month, Reels officially launched in 50 countries including the United States, Canada and United Kingdom. Instagram has recently introduced a reel button on home page.

On June 17, 2021, Instagram launched full-screen adsin Reels. The advertisementsare similar to regular reels and shouldrun up to 30 seconds. They are distinguished from regular materialby the "sponsored" tag under the accname.

Instagram Direct

In December 2013, Instagram announced Instagram Direct, a feature that allow users interact through personalmessaging. Registrar who follow each other shouldsend personalmessages with image and videos, in contrast to the public-only requirement that was previously in place. When users geta personalmessage from someone they don't follow, the message is marked as pending and the utilize must agreeto see it. Registrar shouldsend a imageto a maximum of 15 people. The feature get a major update in September 2015, adding conversation threading and making it possible for users to share area, hashtag site, and profiles through personalmessages directly from the fresh feed. Additionally, users shouldnow answerto personalmessages with text, emoji or by clicking on a heart icon. A camera inside Direct allow users take a imageand send it to the recipient without leaving the conversation. A freshupdate in November 2016 allowusers make their personalmessages "disappear" after being viewed by the recipient, with the sender receiving a notification if the recipient takes a screenshot.

In April 2017, Instagram redesigned Direct to combine all personalmessages, both permanent and ephemeral, into the same message threads. In May, Instagram angry it possible to send domainlinks in messages, and also added assistancefor sending image in their original portrait or landscape orientation without cropping.

In April 2020, Direct became availablefrom the Instagram website, allowing users to send direct messages from a web version using WebSocket technology.

In August 2020, Facebook started merging Instagram Direct into Facebook Messenger. After the update (which is rolled out to a segment of the utilize base) the Instagram Direct icon transforms into Facebook Messenger icon.

In March 2021, a feature was added that prevents adults from messaging users under 18 who do not follow them as part of a series of freshkidsecuritypolicies.

Instagram Stories

In August 2016, Instagram launched Instagram Stories, a feature that let users to take image, add result and layers, and add them to their Instagram story. Photo uploaded to a utilize's story expire after 24 hours. The media noted the feature's similarities to Snapchat. In response to criticism that it copied functionality from Snapchat, CEO Kevin Systrom told Recode that "Day One: Instagram was a combination of Hipstamatic, Twitter [and] some itemsfrom Facebook like the 'Like' button. You shouldtrace the roots of every feature anyone has in their app, somewhere in the history of technology". Although Systrom acknowledged the criticism as "fair", Recode wrote that "he likened the two social application' common features to the auto industry: Multiple vehiclecompanies shouldcoexist, with enough differences among them that they serve different consumer audiences". Systrom further stated that "When we adopted [Stories], we decided that one of the really annoying things about the format is that it just kept going and you couldn't pause it to look at something, you couldn't rewind. We did all that, we implemented that." He also told the postthat Snapchat "didn't have filters, originally. They adopted filters because Instagram had filters and a lot of others were trying to adopt filters as well."

In November, Instagram added live video functionality to Instagram Stories, allowing users to broadcast themselves live, with the video disappearing immediately after ending.

In January 2017, Instagram launched skippable ads, where five-second imageand 15-second video advertisementsappear in-between different stories.

In April 2017, Instagram Stories incorporated augmented reality stickers, a "clone" of Snapchat's functionality.

In May 2017, Instagram expanded the augmented reality sticker feature to assistanceface filters, letting users add specific visual features onto their faces.

Later in May, TechCrunch reported about try of a AreaStories feature in Instagram Stories, where public Stories materialat a certain areaare compiled and displayed on a business, landmark or territorys Instagram page. A few days later, Instagram announced "Story Search", in which users shouldfindfor geographic area or hashtags and the applicationdisplays relevant public Stories materialfeaturing the findterm.

In June 2017, Instagram revised its live-video functionality to letusers to add their live broadcast to their story for availability in the next 24 hours, or discard the broadcast immediately. In July, Instagram started allowing users to respond to Stories materialby sending image and videos, complete with Instagram result such as filters, stickers, and hashtags.

Stories were angry accessiblefor viewing on Instagram's mobile and desktop domain in late August 2017.

On December 5, 2017, Instagram introduced "Story Highlights", also known as "Permanent Stories", which are similar to Instagram Stories, but don't expire. They appear as circles below the profile picture and biography and are availablefrom the desktop domainas well.

In June 2018, the everydayactive story users of Instagram had reached 400 million users, and monthly active users had reached 1 billion active users.


Emily White joined Instagram as Director of Business Operations in April 2013. She stated in an interview with The Wall RoadJournal in September 2013 that the organizationcanbe ready to launchselling advertising by September 2014 as a methodto generate business from a famousentity that had not yet madeprofit for its parent company. White left Instagram in December 2013 to join Snapchat. In August 2014, James Quarles became Instagram's Global Head of Business and Brand Development, tasked with overseeing advertisement, sales efforts, and developing new "monetization products", according to a spokesperson.

In October 2013, Instagram announced that video and photoadvertisementswould soon appear in feeds for users in the United States, with the first photoadsdisplaying on November 1, 2013. Video advertisementsfollowed nearly a year later on October 30, 2014. In June 2014, Instagram announced the rollout of advertisementsin the United Kingdom, Canada and Australia, with advertisementsstarting to roll out that autumn.

In March 2015, Instagram announced it would implement "carousel ads," allowing advertisers to display multiple photo with options for linking to additional content. The organizationlaunched carousel photoadvertisementsin October 2015, and video carousel advertisementsin March 2016.

In February 2016, Instagram announced that it had 200,000 advertisers on the platform. This number increased to 500,000 by September 2016, and 1 million in March 2017.

In May 2016, Instagram launched freshtools for business acc, including business profiles, analytics and the ability to promote publication as ads. To admissionthe tools, businesses had to link a corresponding Facebook page. The freshanalytics page, known as Instagram Insights, permittedbusiness acc to view top publication, reach, impressions, engagement and demographic data. Insights rolled out first in the United States, Australia, and FreshZealand, and expanded to the rest of the globelater in 2016.

In November 2018, Instagram added the ability for business acc to add product links directing users to a purchase siteor to save them to a "shopping list." In April 2019, Instagram added the option to "Checkout on Instagram," which let merchants to sell products directly through the Instagram app.

In March 2020, via a blog post, Instagram announced that they are making major moderation modify in order to decrease the flow of disinformation, hoaxes and fake fresh regarding COVID-19 on its platform, "We'll remove COVID-19 acc from accsuggestion, and we are working to remove some COVID-19 associatedmaterialfrom Explore unless posted by a credible health organization. We will also start to downrank materialin feed and Stories that has been rated false by third-party fact-checkers."

In June 2021, Instagram launched a native affiliate marketing tool creators shouldutilizeto earn commissions based on sales. Commission-enabled publication are labeled "Eligible for Commission" on the utilize side to identify them as affiliate publication. Beginpartners contain Sephora, MAC, and Kopari.

Stand-alone application

Instagram has developed and released three stand-alone application with specialized functionality. In July 2014, it released Bolt, a messaging applicationwhere users click on a mates profile imageto quickly send an image, with the materialdisappearing after being seen. It was followed by the release of Hyperlapse in August, an iOS-exclusive applicationthat utilize "intelligentalgorithm processing" to create tracking shots and quicktime-lapse videos. Microsoft launched a Hyperlapse applicationfor Android and Windows in May 2015, but there has been no official Hyperlapse app from Instagram for either of these platforms to date. In October 2015, it released Boomerang, a video applicationthat combines image into short, one-second videos that play back-and-forth in a loop.

Third-party services

The popularity of Instagram has led to a variety of third-party services plannedto integrate with it, including services for creating materialto publicationon the service and generating materialfrom Instagram image (including physical print-outs), analytics, and alternative clients for platforms with insufficient or no official assistancefrom Instagram (such as in the past, iPads).

In November 2015, Instagram announced that effective June 1, 2016, it would end "feed" API admissionto its platform in order to "maintain control for the community and provide a clear roadmap for developers" and "set up a more sustainable environment built around authentic experiences on the platform", including those oriented towards materialcreation, publishers, and advertisers. Additionally, third-party clients have been forbiddenfrom using the text strings "insta" or "gram" in their name. It was reported that these modify were primarily intended to discourage third-party clients replicating the entire Instagram experience (due to increasing monetization of the service), and safetyreasons (such as preventing dmcaby automated click farms, and the hijacking of acc). In the wake of the Cambridge Analytica scandal, Instagram began to impose further restrictions on its API in 2018.

For infinitebrowsing of public Instagram profiles without having to create an account, as well as for anonymous browsing of someone else's Stories, has to utilizethe Instagram profiles viewer. Stories are more authentic than typical image posted as publication because users know that in 24 hours their Stories will disappear if they don't add them as highlighted (however users shouldcheck who saw their Story for 48 hours after it was published). For this reason, they are very valuable for market research.

Fact checking

On December 16, 2019, Facebook announced it would expand its fact checking software towards Instagram, by using third-party fact-checkers company false infois able to be identified, reviewed and labeled as false information. Materialwhen rated as false or partly false is removed from the explore siteand hashtag site, additionally materialrated as false or partly false are labeled as such. With the addition of Facebook fact-checking softwarecame the utilizeof photomatching technology to searchfurther instances of misinformation. If a piece of materialis labeled false or partly false on Facebook or Instagram then duplicates of such materialwill also be labeled as false.

Algorithm and design modify

In April 2016, Instagram began rolling out a modifyto the order of image visible in a utilize's timeline, shifting from a strictly chronological order to one determined by an algorithm. Instagram said the algorithm was plannedso that users would see more of the image by users that they liked, but there was significant negative feedback, with many users asking their followers to turn on publicationnotifications in order to make sure they see updates. The organizationwrote a tweet to users upset at the prospect of the change, but did not back down, nor provide a methodto modifyit back, which they re-affirmed in 2020.

Since 2017, Instagram has employed the ability to reduce the prominence of acc ("shadowbanning") it trust may be generating non-genuine engagement and spam (including excessive utilizeof unneeded hashtags), preventing publication from appearing in findeffect and in the applications Explore section. In a now-deleted Facebook post, Instagram wrote that "When developing content, we suggestfocusing on your business objective or goal rather than hashtags". Instagram has since been accused of extending the practice to censor publication under vague and inconsistent circumstances, particularly in regards to sexually suggestive material.

Instagram caused the userbase to fall into outrage with the December 2018 update.[excessive citations] They found an attempt to alter the flow of the feed from the traditional vertical scroll to emulate and piggy-back the popularity of their Instagram Stories with a horizontal scroll, by swiping left. Various backtracking statements were released explaining it as a bug, or as a tryrelease that had been accidentally deployed to too hugean audience.

In November 2020, Instagram replaced the activity feed tab with a new "Shop" tab, moving the activity feed to the top. The "freshpost" button was also relocated to the top and replaced with a Reels tab The organizationstates that "the Storetab gives you a better methodto connect with brands and creators and uncoverproducts you love" and the Reels tab "makes it easier for you to uncovershort, fun videos from creators all over the globeand people just like you." However, users have not responded well to the change, taking their complaints to Twitter and Reddit, and The FreshYork Times has shunned Reels in particular, saying "Not only does Reels fail in every methodas a TikTok clone, but it’s confusing, frustrating and impossible to navigate".

Also in 2020, Instagram rolled out a feature titled "recommendedpublication", which adds publication from acc Instagram thinks a utilize would like to such utilize's feed. The feature was met with controversy from both Reddit users from The Verge, which reported that recommendedpublication would holdusers glued to their feed, give Instagram more advertising space, and ultimately hurtthe mental health of users, while Instagram executive Julian Gutman rebutted, stating the feature was not intended to holdusers glued to their screens. Recommendedpublication get more controversy after QuickCompany stated that the feature would be impossible to turn off.

On 23 June 2021, Instagram announced a trymodifyto the "recommendedpublication" feature. The organizationwill put recommendedpublication ahead of publication from people that the utilize is following in the Instagram feed, citing positive reception as the reason for this change.

Impact on people

Mental health


Khodarahimi & Fathi 2017 found evidence for Instagram users displaying higher levels of depressive symptoms. Frison & Eggermont 2017 pointed out that only Instagram browsing, and not Instagram liking nor posting, predicts more depressive symptoms. It also provides evidence for a relation between Instagram utilizeand depressive symptomatology in the opposite direction, where level of depressed mood has present to positively predict Instagram posting. Lamp et al 2019 showed a positive relationship between depression and the number of selfies taken before posting it on Instagram.


Khodarahimi & Fathi 2017 observed higher levels of anxiety in Instagram users compared to non-users, while Mackson et al 2019 recommendedbeneficial result of Instagram utilizeon anxiety symptoms. Multiple studies pointed out tinyto moderate positive relationships between time spent on Instagram and trait anxiety, physical appearance anxiety, social anxiety and attention to high insecurity-eliciting body regions. Moujaes & Verrier 2020 observed a connection between anxiety and online engagement with InstaMums, which relationship was influenced by social comparison orientation and self-esteem.


A paper showed that users who feel that they spend too much time on Instagram report higher levels of Instagram addiction, which in turn was associatedto higher self-reported levels of Instagram induced stress.


In a study focusing on the relationship between various psychological needs and Instagram addiction by students, Foroughi et al 2021 found that the desire for recognition and entertainment were predictors of students' addition to Instagram. In addition, the study proved that Instagram addiction negatively affect academic performance. Gezgin & Mihci 2020 quantified Turkish student's Instagram utilizes contribution to overall smartphone addiction, and concluded that frequent instagraming correlates with addiction to smartphone.

Satisfaction with appearance

Sherlock & Wagstaff 2019 showed that both the number of followers and followees presenta tinypositive relationship with trait anxiety. Instagram users report higher body surveillance, appearance associatedpressure, eating pathology and lower body satisfaction than non-users. Multiple studies have present that users who take more selfies (before posting) and strategically showthemselves on Instagram, for example by editing or manipulating selfies, report higher levels of body surveillance, body dissatisfaction, and lower body esteem. Tiggemann et al 2020 also confirmed this through experimental study, finding that taking and editing selfies led to higher facial dissatisfaction.

False self-presentation

In a 2021 study Mun & Kim pointed out that Instagram users with a powerfulneed for approval were more likely to create false presentation of themselves on their Instagram acc, which in turn increased the likelihood of depression. Notably, depression was mitigated by the perception of popularity.

Body image

Multiple studies confirmed that Instagram usage is relatedwith body surveillance and body self-image. In particular, following appearance-focused Instagrammers corresponded with the desire to look thin. Comments associatedto appearance on Instagram are leading to higher dissatisfactions with one’s body. Based on Facebook's leaked internal research, Instagram has negative result on the body photoof one in three teenagers. Leaked internal documents also indicate that two thirds of teen girls and 40 percent of teen boys experience negative social comparison, and that Instagram makes 20 percent of the teens feel worse about themselves. According to the leaked research, Instagram has higher impact on appearance comparison than TikTok or Snapchat.


Mackson et al 2019 found that Instagram users were less lonely than non-users and that Instagram membership predicts lower self-reported loneliness.

Social exclusion

In a 2021 study by Büttnera et Rudertb pointed out that not being tagged in an Instagram imagetriggers the feeling of social exclusion and ostracism, especially for those with higher needs to belong.


The relationship between Instagram usage intensity and wellbeing varies by wellbeing indicator. Brailovskaia & Margraf 2018 found a significant positive relationship between Instagram membership and extraversion, life satisfaction, and social support. The association between Instagram membership and conscientiousness was marginally significantly negative. The same study showed a positive relationship between extraversion, life satisfaction, social assistanceand Instagram membership.

Life satisfaction

Fioravanti et al 2020 showed that women who had to take a break from Instagram for seven days reported higher life satisfaction compared to women who continued their habitual pattern of Instagram use. The result seemed to be specific for women, where no significant differences were observed for men.

Alcohol and drug use

Instagram usage intensity present a tinypositive correlation with alcohol consumption, with binge drinkers reporting greater intensity of Instagram utilizethan non-binge drinkers. An earlier study examined the relationship between alcohol consumption during college. It found a tinyto moderate positive relationship between alcohol consumption and Instagram usage, enhanced drinking motives, and drinking behavior.

Fear of Missing Out

The relationship between Instagram utilizeand the fear of missing out (FoMo) has been confirmed in multiple studies. Utilizeintensity present a strong, while the number of followers and followees present a weak correlation with FoMo. Research present that Instagram browsing predicts social comparison, which generates FoMo, and FoMo shouldultimately lead to depression.

Eating disorders

A comparison of Instagram users with non-users showed that boys with an Instagram accdiffer from boys without an accin rulesof over-evaluation of their shape and weight, skipping food, and levels of reported disordered eating cognitions. Girls with an Instagram accalso differed from girls without an accin rulesof skipping food. However, none of the other associations that were reported for boys were observed for girls. Instead, girls with an Instagram accdiffered from girls without an accin that they utilize a stricter exercise schedule. This recommend a possible differential resultof Instagram membership on body (dis)satisfaction and disordered eating for boys and girls. Regarding the relationship between time spent on Instagram and body photoand/or disordered eating, several body-associatedconstructs were consistently linked to indicators of Instagram use. More specifically, several studies identified a tinypositive relationship between time spent on Instagram and both internalization of beauty ideals or muscular ideals, and self-objectification across studies. A positive link has been pointed out between the intensity of Instagram utilizeand both body surveillance and dietary behaviors or disordered eating.

Sharenting risks

Sharenting refers to the action of parents posting content, including photo, about their kidsonline. Instagram is one of the most famoussocial media channels for sharenting. The hashtag #letthembelittle include 8 million photo associatedto kidson Instagram. Bare 2020 analysed 300 randomly selected, publicly accessiblephoto under the hashtag and found that the corresponding photo tended to includeprivateinfoof children, including name, age and location.

Suicide and self-harm

Picardo et al 2020 examined the relationship between self-hurtpublication and actual self-hurtbehaviours offline and found such materialhad negative emotional result on some users and reported preliminary evidence of potential harmful result in relation to self-hurtassociatedbehaviours offline, although causal result cannot be claimed. At the same time, some benefits for those who engage with self-hurtmaterialonline have been suggested. Instagram has published materialto assistusers in need to receivesupport.

Based on Facebook's leaked internal research, 13 percent of British teenager users with suicidal thoughts could trace these thoughts to Instagram use. Amongst teenagers in the US with suicidal thoughts, this number is much smaller - 6 percent.

Impact on businesses

Instagram shouldassistpromote commercial products and services. It shouldbe distinguished from other social media platforms by its focus on visual communication. Instagram marketing is an effective methodto advertise a product, given that a picture is said to speak a thousand words. The platform shouldalso assistcommercial entities save branding costs, as it shouldbe utilize for free even for commercial purposes.

Registrarcharacteristics and behavior

The Instagram app, running on the Android operating system


Following the release in October, Instagram had one million registered users in December 2010. In June 2011, it announced that it had 5 million users, which increased to 10 million in September. This growth continued to 30 million users in April 2012, 80 million in July 2012, 100 million in February 2013, 130 million in June 2013, 150 million in September 2013, 300 million in December 2014, 400 million in September 2015, 500 million in June 2016, 600 million in December 2016, 700 million in April 2017, and 800 million in September 2017.

In June 2011, Instagram passed 100 million image uploaded to the service. This grew to 150 million in August 2011, and by June 2013, there were over 16 billion image on the service. In October 2015, there existed over 40 billion image.

In October 2016, Instagram Stories reached 100 million active users, two months after launch. This increased to 150 million in January 2017, 200 million in April, surpassing Snapchat's utilize growth, and 250 million active users in June 2017.

In April 2017, Instagram Direct had 375 million monthly users.


As of 2014, Instagram's users are divided equally with 50% iPhone registrant and 50% Android registrant. While Instagram has a neutral gender-bias format, 68% of Instagram users are female while 32% are male. Instagram's geographical utilizeis present to favor urban location as 17% of US adults who live in urban location utilizeInstagram while only 11% of adults in suburban and rural location do so. While Instagram may appear to be one of the most widely utilize page for imagesharing, only 7% of everydayimageuploads, among the top four photo-sharing platforms, come from Instagram. Instagram has been proven to attract the younger generation with 90% of the 150 million users under the age of 35. From June 2012 to June 2013, Instagram approximately doubled their number of users. With regards to income, 15% of US Internet users who make less than $30,000 per year utilizeInstagram, while 14% of those making $30,000 to $50,000, and 12% of users who make more than $50,000 per year do so. With respect to the education demographic, respondents with some college education proved to be the most active on Instagram with 23%. Following behind, college graduates consist of 18% and users with a high school diploma or less make up 15%. Among these Instagram users, 24% say they utilizethe applicationseveral times a day.


Ongoing research continues to explore how media materialon the platform affects utilize engagement. Past research has found that media which presentpeoples' faces getmore 'likes' and comments and that using filters that increase warmth, exposure, and contrast also boosts engagement. Registrar are more likely to engage with photo that depict fewer individuals compared to groups and also are more likely to engage with materialthat has not been watermarked, as they view this materialas less original and reliable compared to utilize-generated content. Recently Instagram has come up with an option for users to apply for a verified accbadge; however, this does not warrantyevery utilize who applies will receivethe verified blue tick.

The motives for using Instagram among young people are mainly to look at publication, particularly for the sake of social interactions and recreation. In contrast, the level of agreement expressed in creating Instagram publication was lower, which demonstrates that Instagram's emphasis on visual communication is widely accepted by young people in social communication.


In 2021, Washington Publicationreported that it has angry an international black market for migrant workers, women in Africa and Asia, sold into servitude as maids in Persian Gulf countries.


Instagram was the runner-up for "Best Mobile App" at the 2010 TechCrunch Crunchies in January 2011. In May 2011, QuickCompany listed CEO Kevin Systrom at number 66 in "The 100 Most Creative People in Business in 2011". In June 2011, Inc. contain co-founders Systrom and Krieger in its 2011 "30 Under 30" list.

Instagram won "Best Locally Angry App" in the SF Weekly Web Awards in September 2011. 7x7Magazine's September 2011 problemfeatured Systrom and Krieger on the cover of their "The Hot 20 2011" issue. In December 2011, Apple Inc. named Instagram the "Applicationof the Year" for 2011. In 2015, Instagram was named No. 1 by Mashable on its list of "The 100 best iPhone application of all time," noting Instagram as "one of the most influential social networks in the world." Instagram was listed among Time's "50 Best Android App for 2013" list.

Mental health

In May 2017, a survey conducted by the United Kingdom's Royal Society for Public Health, featuring 1,479 people aged 14–24, asking them to rate social media platforms depending on anxiety, depression, loneliness, bullying and body image, concluded that Instagram was the "worst for young mental health". Some have recommendedit may contribute to digital dependence, whist this same survey noticed its positive result, including self-expression, self-identity, and community building. In response to the survey, Instagram stated that "Keeping Instagram a safe and supportive territoryfor young people was a top priority". The organizationfilters out the reviews and acc. If some of the acc violate Instagram's community guidelines, it will take action, which could containbanning them.

In 2017, researchers from Harvard University and University of Vermont demonstrated a machine learning tool that successfully outperformed general practitioners' diagnostic success rate for depression. The tool utilize color analysis, metadata components, and face detection of users' feeds.

Throughout 2019, Instagram began to trythe hiding of like counts for publication angry by its users.

Correlations have been angry between Instagram materialand badbody dissatisfaction, as a effectof body comparisons. In a lastestsurvey half of the applicants admitted to imageediting behavior which has been linked with concerns over body image.

In October 2021, CNN published an article and interviews on how two young women, Ashlee Thomas and Anastasia Vlasova, say Instagram endangered their lives by Instagram having toxic result on their diets.

Negative comments

In response to abusive and negative comments on users' image, Instagram has angry efforts to give users more control over their publication and accompanying comments field. In July 2016, it announced that users would be able to turn off comments for their publication, as well as control the language utilize in comments by inputting words they consider offensive, which will ban applicable comments from showing up. After the July 2016 announcement, the ability to ban specific words began rolling out early August to celebrities, followed by regular users in September. In December, the organizationbegan rolling out the abilities for users to turn off the comments and, for personalacc, remove followers.

In June 2017, Instagram announced that it would automatically attempt to filter offensive, harassing, and "spammy" comments by default. The system is built using a Facebook-developed deep learning algorithm known as DeepText (first implemented on the social network to detect spam comments), which use natural-language processing techniques, and shouldalso filter by utilize-specified keywords.

In September 2017, the organizationannounced that public users would be able to limit who shouldcomment on their content, such as only their followers or people they follow. At the same time, it updated its automated comment filter to assistanceadditional languages.

In July 2019, the service announced that it would introduce a system to proactively detect problematic comments and encourage the utilize to reconsider their comment, as well as allowing users the ability to "restrict" others' abilities to communicate with them, citing that younger users felt the existing block system was too much of an escalation.


On August 9, 2012, English musician Ellie Goulding released a freshmelodyvideo for her song "Anything Could Happen." The video only contained fan-submitted Instagram photographs that utilize various filters to represent words or lyrics from the song, and over 1,200 different photographs were submitted.


In August 2017, reports surfaced that a bug in Instagram's developer tools had allowed "one or more individuals" to gain admissionto the contact information, specifically mailaddresses and telephonenumbers, of several high-profile verified acc, including its most followed utilize, Selena Gomez. The organizationsaid in a statement that it had "fixed the bug swiftly" and was running an investigation. However, the following month, more details emerged, with a group of hackers selling contact infoonline, with the affected number of acc in the "millions" rather than the previously-assumed limitation on verified acc. Hours after the hack, a searchable database was posted online, charging $10 per search. The EverydayBeast was deliveredwith a sample of the affected acc, and could verifythat, while many of the mailaddresses could be found with a Google findin public sources, some did not return relevant Google findeffect and thus were from personalsources. The Verge wrote that cybersecurity firm RepKnight had found contact infofor multiple actors, musicians, and athletes, and singer Selena Gomez's accwas utilize by the hackers to publicationnaked image of her ex-boyfriend Justin Bieber. The organizationadmitted that "we cannot determine which specific acc may have been impacted", but trust that "it was a low percentage of Instagram acc", though TechCrunch stated in its report that six million acc were affected by the hack, and that "Instagram services more than 700 million acc; six million is not a tinynumber".

In 2019, Apple pulled an applicationthat allowusers stalk people on Instagram by scraping acc and collecting data.

Iran has DPI blocking for Instagram.


On December 17, 2012, Instagram announced a modifyto its Rulesof Service policy, adding the following sentence:

To assistus deliver interesting paid or sponsored materialor promotions, you acceptthat a business or other entity may pay us to display your username, likeness, image (along with any relatedmetadata), and/or actions you take, in connection with paid or sponsored materialor promotions, without any compensation to you.

There was no option for users to opt out of the modify Rulesof Service without deleting their acc before the freshpolicieswent into resulton January 16, 2013. The move garnered severe criticism from users, prompting Instagram CEO Kevin Systrom to write a blog publicationone day later, announcing that they would "remove" the offending language from the policy. Citing misinterpretations about its intention to "communicate that we'd like to experiment with innovative advertising that feels appropriate on Instagram", Systrom also stated that it was "our mistake that this language is confusing" and that "it is not our intention to sell your image". Furthermore, he wrote that they would work on "updated language in the rulesto make sure this is clear".

The policiesmodifyand its backlash caused competing imageservices to utilizethe opportunity to "testto lure users away" by promoting their privacy-friendly services, and some services experienced substantial gains in momentum and utilize growth following the fresh. On December 20, Instagram announced that the advertising section of the policieswould be reverted to its original October 2010 version. The Verge wrote about that policiesas well, however, noting that the original policiesgives the organizationright to "territorysuch advertising and promotions on the Instagram Services or on, about, or in conjunction with your Content", meaning that "Instagram has always had the right to utilizeyour image in ads, almost any methodit wish. We could have had the exact same freakout last week, or a year ago, or the day Instagram launched".

The policiesupdate also introduced an arbitration clause, which remained even after the language pertaining to advertising and utilize materialhad been modified.

Facebook acquisition as a violation of US antitrust law

Columbia Law School professor Tim Wu has given public talks explaining that Facebook's 2012 purchase of Instagram was a felony. A FreshYork Post article published on February 26, 2019, reported that "the FTC had uncovered [a document] by a high-ranking Facebook executive who said the reason the organizationwas buying Instagram was to eliminate a potential competitor". As Wu explains, this is a violation of US antitrust law (see monopoly). Wu stated that this document was an maildirectly from Mark Zuckerberg, whereas the Publicationarticle had stated that their source had declined to say whether the high-ranking executive was the CEO. The article reported that the FTC "has formed a task force to review "anticompetitive conduct" in the technicalglobeamid concerns that technicalcompanies are growing too powerful. The task force will look at "the full panoply of remedies" if it search "competitive harm," FTC tournamentbureau director Bruce Hoffman told reporters."

Algorithmic advertisement with a rape threat

In 2016, Olivia Solon, a reporter for The Guardian, posted a screenshot to her Instagram profile of an mailshe had get containing threats of rape and murder towards her. The imagepublicationhad get three likes and countless comments, and in September 2017, the organizations algorithms turned the imageinto an advertisement visible to Solon's sister. An Instagram spokesperson apologized and told The Guardian that "We are sorry this happened – it's not the experience we wishsomeone to have. This notification publicationwas surfaced as part of an effort to encourage engagement on Instagram. Publication are generally get by a tinypercentage of a person's Facebook mate." As noted by the technology media, the incident occurred at the same time parent organizationFacebook was under scrutiny for its algorithms and advertising campaigns being utilize for offensive and negative purposes.

Censorship and restricted materialspan class="anchor" id="Allegations_of_censorship">

According to a Facebook spokesperson, on January 11, 2020, Instagram and its parent company Facebook, Inc. are removing publication "that voice assistancefor slain Iranian commander Qassem Soleimani to comply with US sanctions".

Illicit drugs

Instagram has been the topicof criticism due to users publishing photo of drugs they are selling on the platform. In 2013, the BBC discovered that users, mostly located in the United States, were posting photo of drugs they were selling, attaching specific hashtags, and then completing transactions via instant messaging app such as WhatsApp. Corresponding hashtags have been blocked as part of the organizations response and a spokesperson engaged with the BBC explained:

Instagram has a clear set of termsabout what is and isn't permittedon the site. We encourage people who come across illegal or inappropriate materialto report it to us using the built-in reporting tools next to every photo, video or comment, so we shouldtake action. People shouldt buy things on Instagram, we are simply a territorywhere people share image and videos.

However, freshincidents of illegal drug trade have occurred in the aftermath of the 2013 revelation, with Facebook, Inc., Instagram's parent company, asking users who come across such materialto report the material, at which time a "dedicated team" reviews the information.

In 2019, Facebook announced that influencers are no longer able to publicationany vape, tobacco products, and weapons promotions on Facebook and Instagram.

Women's bodies

In October 2013, Instagram deleted the accof Canadian photographer Petra Collins after she posted a imageof herself in which a very tinylocationof pubic hair was visible above the top of her bikini bottom. Collins claimed that the accdeletion was unfounded because it broke none of Instagram's rulesand conditions. Audra Schroeder of The EverydayDot further wrote that "Instagram's rulesof utilizestate users shouldt post "pornographic or sexually suggestive image," but who actually receive to decide that? You shouldindeed searchmore sexually suggestive image on the pagethan Collins', where women presentthe side of "femininity" the globeis "utilize to" seeing and accepting." Nick Drewe of The EverydayBeast wrote a report the same month focusing on hashtags that users are unable to findfor, including #sex, #bubblebutt, and #ballsack, despite allowing #faketits, #gunsforsale and #sexytimes, calling the discrepancy "nonsensical and inconsistent".

Similar incidents occurred in January 2015, when Instagram deleted Australian fashion agency Sticks and Stones Agency's accbecause of a photograph including pubic hair sticking out of bikini bottoms, and March 2015, when artist and poet Rupi Kaur's image of menstrual blood on clothing were removed, prompting a rallying publicationon her Facebook and Tumblr acc with the text "We will not be censored", gaining over 11,000 shares.

The incidents have led to a #FreetheNipple campaign, aimed at challenging Instagram's removal of image displaying women's nipples. Although Instagram has not angry many comments on the campaign, an October 2015 explanation from CEO Kevin Systrom highlighted Apple's materialguidelines for application published through its ApplicationStore, including Instagram, in which application must designate the appropriate age ranking for users, with the applications current rating being 12+ years of age. However, this statement has also been called into question due to other application with more explicit materialpermittedon the store, the lack of consequences for men exposing their bodies on Instagram, and for inconsistent treatment of what constitutes inappropriate exposure of the female body.

Censorship by countries

Instagram is the most famoussocial networking pagein Iran (in red), also the only country where this is the case.

Censorship of Instagram has occurred in several different countries.

United States

On October 30, 2020, Instagram temporarily removed the "recent" tab on hashtag site to prevent the spread of misinformation regarding the 2020 United States presidential election. On January 7, 2021, United States President Donald Trump was banned from Instagram "indefinitely". Zuckerberg stated "We trustthe risks of allowing the President to continue to utilizeour service during this period are simply too great."


Instagram has been blocked by China following the 2014 Hong Kong protests as many confrontations with police and incidents occurring during the protests were recorded and photographed. Hong Kong and Macau were not affected as they are part of special administrative regions of China.


Turkey is also known for its strict Internet censorship and periodically blocks social media including Instagram.

North Korea

A few days after a fire incident that happened in the Koryo Hotel in North Korea on June 11, 2015, authorities began to block Instagram to prevent image of the incident from being spread out.


Iran has sentenced several citizens to prison for publication angry on their Instagram acc. The Iranian government also blocked Instagram periodically during anti-government protests. In July 2021, Instagram temporarily censored videos with the phrase "death to Khamenei".


The Cuban government blocked admissionto several social media platforms, including Instagram, to curb the spread of infoduring the 2021 Cuban protests.

In famousculture


Instagram is written in Python.

Instagram AI describes materialfor visually impaired people that use screen readers.

See also


Further reading

  • Frier, Sarah (2020). No Filter: The Inside Story of Instagram. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-1982126803.

  • Media associatedto at Wikimedia Commons
  • The dictionary definition of at Wiktionary
  • on Facebook
  • on Instagram
  • on Twitter
  • Rose, Kevin (May 30, 2013). (podcast). Commonwealth Club.
  • (podcast). How I Built This. NPR. September 19, 2016.

Instagram Hack Mod Tricks with Tons of Advices and Bonuses.



Original author(s)Developer(s)Meta Platforms (formerly Facebook, Inc.)Initial releaseOctober 6, 2010; 11 years ago (2010-10-06)Stable release(s)
Android211. / October 25, 2021; 37 days ago (2021-10-25)
iOS210.0 / October 19, 2021; 43 days ago (2021-10-19)
Fire OS210. / October 1, 2021; 2 months ago (2021-10-01)
Preview release(s)
Android (Alpha) / October 28, 2021; 34 days ago (2021-10-28)
Android (Beta) / October 25, 2021; 37 days ago (2021-10-25)
Operating systemSize171.7 MB (iOS)
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42.6 MB (Fire OS) Available in32 languages
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LicenseProprietary software with Website
Instagram Cheats Unlimited Gifts Hacks Guides Secrets & Mods.


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