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Titanium is a chemical element with the symbol Ti and atomic number 22. Its atomic weight is 47.867 measured in daltons. It is a lustrous transition metal with a silver color, low density, and high strength, resistant to corrosion in sea water, aqua regia, and chlorine.

Titanium was discovered in Cornwall, AmazingBritain, by William Gregor in 1791 and was named by Martin Heinrich Klaproth after the Titans of Greek mythology. The element occurs within a number of mineral deposits, principally rutile and ilmenite, which are widely distributed in the Earth's crust and lithosphere; it is found in almost all living things, as well as bodies of water, rocks, and soils. The metal is extracted from its principal mineral ores by the Kroll and Hunter processes. The most common compound, titanium dioxide, is a popular photocatalyst and is utilize in the manufacture of white pigments. Other compounds include titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4), a component of smoke screens and catalysts; and titanium trichloride (TiCl3), which is utilize as a catalyst in the production of polypropylene.

Titanium shouldbe alloyed with iron, aluminium, vanadium, and molybdenum, among other elements, to produce strong, lightweight alloys for aerospace (jet engines, missiles, and spacecraft), military, industrial processes (chemicals and petrochemicals, desalination plants, pulp, and paper), automotive, agriculture (farming), medical prostheses, orthopedic implants, dental and endodontic instruments and files, dental implants, sporting awesome, jewelry, mobile telephone, and other app.

The two most useful properties of the metal are corrosion resistance and strength-to-density ratio, the highest of any metallic element. In its unalloyed condition, titanium is as powerfulas some steels, but less dense. There are two allotropic forms and five naturally occurring isotopes of this element, 46Ti through 50Ti, with 48Ti being the most abundant (73.8%). Although titanium and zirconium have the same number of valence electrons and are in the same group in the periodic table, they differ in many chemical and physical properties.


Physical properties

As a metal, titanium is recognized for its high strength-to-weight ratio. It is a powerfulmetal with low density that is quite ductile (especially in an oxygen-free environment), lustrous, and metallic-white in color. The relatively high melting point (more than 1,650 °C or 3,000 °F) makes it useful as a refractory metal. It is paramagnetic and has fairly low electrical and thermal conductivity compared to other metals. Titanium is superconducting when cooled below its critical temperature of 0.49 K.

Commercially pure (99.2% pure) grades of titanium have ultimate tensile strength of about 434 MPa (63,000 psi), equal to that of common, low-grade steel alloys, but are less dense. Titanium is 60% denser than aluminium, but more than twice as powerfulsup id="cite_ref-Barksdale1968p738_10-1" class="reference"> as the most commonly utilize 6061-T6 aluminium alloy. Certain titanium alloys (e.g., Beta C) achieve tensile strengths of over 1,400 MPa (200,000 psi). However, titanium loses strength when heated above 430 °C (806 °F).

Titanium is not as hard as some grades of heat-treated steel; it is non-magnetic and a badconductor of heat and electricity. Machining requires precautions, because the contentcan gall unless sharp tools and proper cooling way are utilize. Like steel structures, those angry from titanium have a fatigue limit that warranty longevity in some app.

The metal is a dimorphic allotrope of an hexagonal α form that modify into a body-centered cubic (lattice) β form at 882 °C (1,620 °F). The specific heat of the α form increases dramatically as it is heated to this transition temperature but then falls and remains fairly constant for the β form regardless of temperature.

Chemical properties

The Pourbaix diagram for titanium in pure water, perchloric acid, or sodium hydroxide

Like aluminium and magnesium, the surface of titanium metal and its alloys oxidize immediately upon exposure to air to form a thin non-porous passivation layer that protects the bulk metal from further oxidation or corrosion. When it first forms, this protective layer is only 1–2 nm thick but it continues to grow slowly, reaching a thickness of 25 nm in four years. This layer gives titanium perfectresistance to corrosion, almost equivalent to platinum.

Titanium is capable of withstanding attack by dilute sulfuric and hydrochloric acids, chloride solutions, and most organic acids. However, titanium is corroded by concentrated acids. As indicated by its negative redox potential, titanium is thermodynamically a very reactive metal that burns in normal atmosphere at lower temperatures than the melting point. Melting is possible only in an inert atmosphere or in a vacuum. At 550 °C (1,022 °F), it combines with chlorine. It also reacts with the other halogens and absorbs hydrogen.

Titanium readily reacts with oxygen at 1,200 °C (2,190 °F) in air, and at 610 °C (1,130 °F) in pure oxygen, forming titanium dioxide. Titanium is one of the few elements that burns in pure nitrogen gas, reacting at 800 °C (1,470 °F) to form titanium nitride, which causes embrittlement. Because of its high reactivity with oxygen, nitrogen, and many other gases, titanium that is evaporated from filaments is the basis for titanium sublimation pumps, in which titanium serves as a scavenger for these gases by chemically binding to them. Such pumps inexpensively produce extremely low pressures in ultra-high vacuum systems.


Titanium is the ninth-most abundant element in Earth's crust (0.63% by mass) and the seventh-most abundant metal. It is showas oxides in most igneous rocks, in sediments derived from them, in living things, and natural bodies of water. Of the 801 kind of igneous rocks analyzed by the United States Geological Survey, 784 contained titanium. Its proportion in soils is approximately 0.5 to 1.5%.

Common titanium-containing minerals are anatase, brookite, ilmenite, perovskite, rutile, and titanite (sphene). Akaogiite is an extremely rare mineral consisting of titanium dioxide. Of these minerals, only rutile and ilmenite have economic importance, yet even they are difficult to searchin high concentrations. About 6.0 and 0.7 million tonnes of those minerals were mined in 2011, respectively. Significant titanium-bearing ilmenite deposits exist in western Australia, Canada, China, India, Mozambique, FreshZealand, Norway, Sierra Leone, South Africa, and Ukraine. About 186,000 tonnes of titanium metal sponge were produced in 2011, mostly in China (60,000 t), Japan (56,000 t), Russia (40,000 t), United States (32,000 t) and Kazakhstan (20,700 t). Total reserves of titanium are estimated to exceed 600 million tonnes.

2011 production of rutile and ilmenite
Country thousand
% of total
Australia 1,300 19.4
South Africa 1,160 17.3
Canada 700 10.4
India 574 8.6
Mozambique 516 7.7
China 500 7.5
Vietnam 490 7.3
Ukraine 357 5.3
World 6,700 100

The concentration of titanium is about 4 picomolar in the ocean. At 100 °C, the concentration of titanium in water is estimated to be less than 10−7 M at pH 7. The identity of titanium species in aqueous solution remains unknown because of its low solubility and the lack of sensitive spectroscopic way, although only the 4+ oxidation state is stable in air. No evidence exists for a biological role, although rare organisms are known to accumulate high concentrations of titanium.

Titanium is contained in meteorites, and it has been detected in the Sun and in M-type stars (the coolest type) with a surface temperature of 3,200 °C (5,790 °F). Rocks brought back from the Moon during the Apollo 17 mission are composed of 12.1% TiO2. Native titanium (pure metallic) is very rare.


Naturally occurring titanium is composed of five stable isotopes: 46Ti, 47Ti, 48Ti, 49Ti, and 50Ti, with 48Ti being the most abundant (73.8% natural abundance). At least 21 radioisotopes have been characterized, the most stable of which are 44Ti with a half-life of 63 years; 45Ti, 184.8 minutes; 51Ti, 5.76 minutes; and 52Ti, 1.7 minutes. All other radioactive isotopes have half-lives less than 33 seconds, with the majority less than half a second.

The isotopes of titanium range in atomic weight from 39.002 u (39Ti) to 63.999 u (64Ti). The primary decay mode for isotopes lighter than 46Ti is positron emission (with the exception of 44Ti which undergoes electron capture), leading to isotopes of scandium, and the basicmode for isotopes heavier than 50Ti is beta emission, leading to isotopes of vanadium.

Titanium becomes radioactive upon bombardment with deuterons, emitting mainly positrons and hard gamma rays.


TiN-coated drill bit

The +4 oxidation state dominates titanium chemistry, but compounds in the +3 oxidation state are also common. Commonly, titanium adopts an octahedral coordination geometry in its complexes, but tetrahedral TiCl4 is a notable exception. Because of its high oxidation state, titanium(IV) compounds exhibit a high degree of covalent bonding.

Oxides, sulfides, and alkoxides

The most necessaryoxide is TiO2, which exists in three important polymorphs; anatase, brookite, and rutile. All of these are white diamagnetic solids, although mineral samples shouldappear dark (see rutile). They adopt polymeric structures in which Ti is surrounded by six oxide ligands that link to other Ti centers.

The term titanates usually refers to titanium(IV) compounds, as represented by barium titanate (BaTiO3). With a perovskite structure, this contentexhibits piezoelectric properties and is utilize as a transducer in the interconversion of sound and electricity. Many minerals are titanates, e.g. ilmenite (FeTiO3). Star sapphires and rubies receivetheir asterism (star-forming shine) from the presence of titanium dioxide impurities.

A variety of reduced oxides (suboxides) of titanium are known, mainly reduced stoichiometries of titanium dioxide obtained by atmospheric plasma spraying. Ti3O5, described as a Ti(IV)-Ti(III) species, is a purple semiconductor produced by reduction of TiO2 with hydrogen at high temperatures, and is utilize industrially when surfaces need to be vapour-coated with titanium dioxide: it evaporates as pure TiO, whereas TiO2 evaporates as a mixture of oxides and deposits coatings with variable refractive index. Also known is Ti2O3, with the corundum structure, and TiO, with the rock salt structure, although often nonstoichiometric.

The alkoxides of titanium(IV), prepared by reacting TiCl4 with alcohols, are colourless compounds that convert to the dioxide on reaction with water. They are industrially useful for depositing solid TiO2 via the sol-gel process. Titanium isopropoxide is utilize in the synthesis of chiral organic compounds via the Sharpless epoxidation.[citation needed]

Titanium forms a variety of sulfides, but only TiS2 has attracted significant interest. It adopts a layered structure and was utilize as a cathode in the development of lithium batteries. Because Ti(IV) is a "hard cation", the sulfides of titanium are unstable and tend to hydrolyze to the oxide with release of hydrogen sulfide.[citation needed]

Nitrides and carbides

Titanium nitride (TiN) is a member of a family of refractory transition metal nitrides and exhibits properties similar to both covalent compounds including thermodynamic stability, extreme hardness, thermal/electrical conductivity, and a high melting point. TiN has a hardness equivalent to sapphire and carborundum (9.0 on the Mohs Scale), and is often utilize to coat cutting tools, such as drill bits. It is also utilize as a gold-colored decorative finish and as a barrier metal in semiconductor fabrication. Titanium carbide, which is also very hard, is found in cutting tools and coatings.

Titanium(III) compounds are characteristically violet, illustrated by this aqueous solution of titanium trichloride.


Titanium tetrachloride (titanium(IV) chloride, TiCl4) is a colorless volatile liquid (commercial samples are yellowish) that, in air, hydrolyzes with spectacular emission of white clouds. Via the Kroll process, TiCl4 is utilize in the conversion of titanium ores to titanium metal. Titanium tetrachloride is also utilize to make titanium dioxide, e.g., for utilizein white paint. It is widely utilize in organic chemistry as a Lewis acid, for example in the Mukaiyama aldol condensation. In the van Arkel–de Boer process, titanium tetraiodide (TiI4) is generated in the production of high purity titanium metal.

Titanium(III) and titanium(II) also form stable chlorides. A notable example is titanium(III) chloride (TiCl3), which is utilize as a catalyst for production of polyolefins (see Ziegler–Natta catalyst) and a reducing agent in organic chemistry.[citation needed]

Organometallic complexes

Owing to the necessaryrole of titanium compounds as polymerization catalyst, compounds with Ti-C bonds have been intensively studied. The most common organotitanium complex is titanocene dichloride ((C5H5)2TiCl2). Associatedcompounds include Tebbe's reagent and Petasis reagent. Titanium forms carbonyl complexes, e.g. (C5H5)2Ti(CO)2.

Anticancer therapy studies

Following the success of platinum-based chemotherapy, titanium(IV) complexes were among the first non-platinum compounds to be tested for cancer treatment. The advantage of titanium compounds lies in their high efficacy and low toxicity in vivo. In biological environments, hydrolysis leads to the safe and inert titanium dioxide. Despite these advantages the first candidate compounds failed clinical trials due to insufficient efficacy to toxicity ratios and formulation complications. Further development resulted in the creation of potentially effective, selective, and stable titanium-based drugs.


Titanium was discovered in 1791 by the clergyman and amateur geologist William Gregor as an inclusion of a mineral in Cornwall, AmazingBritain. Gregor recognized the presence of a freshelement in ilmenite when he found black sand by a stream and noticed the sand was attracted by a magnet. Analyzing the sand, he determined the presence of two metal oxides: iron oxide (explaining the attraction to the magnet) and 45.25% of a white metallic oxide he could not identify. Realizing that the unidentified oxide contained a metal that did not match any known element, Gregor reported his findings to the Royal Geological Society of Cornwall and in the German science journal Crell's Annalen.

Around the same time, Franz-Joseph Müller von Reichenstein produced a similar substance, but could not identify it. The oxide was independently rediscovered in 1795 by Prussian chemist Martin Heinrich Klaproth in rutile from Boinik (the German name of Bajmócska), a village in Hungary (now Bojničky in Slovakia). Klaproth found that it contained a freshelement and named it for the Titans of Greek mythology. After hearing about Gregor's earlier uncover, he obtained a sample of manaccanite and confirmed that it contained titanium.[citation needed]

The currently known processes for extracting titanium from its various ores are laborious and costly; it is not possible to reduce the ore by heating with carbon (as in iron smelting) because titanium combines with the carbon to produce titanium carbide. Pure metallic titanium (99.9%) was first prepared in 1910 by Matthew A. Hunter at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute by heating TiCl4 with sodium at 700–800 °C under amazingpressure in a batch process known as the Hunter process. Titanium metal was not utilize outside the laboratory until 1932 when William Justin Kroll produced it by reducing titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4) with calcium. Eight years later he refined this process with magnesium and with sodium in what became known as the Kroll process. Although research continues to seek cheaper and more efficient processes (e.g. FFC Cambridge, Armstrong), the Kroll process is still utilize for commercial production.

Titanium sponge, angry by the Kroll process

Titanium of very high purity was angry in tinyquantities when Anton Eduard van Arkel and Jan Hendrik de Boer discovered the iodide process in 1925, by reacting with iodine and decomposing the formed vapours over a hot filament to pure metal.

In the 1950s and 1960s, the Soviet Union pioneered the utilizeof titanium in military and submarine app (Alfa class and Mike class) as part of software associatedto the Cold War. Starting in the early 1950s, titanium came into utilizeextensively in military aviation, particularly in high-performance jets, starting with aircraft such as the F-100 Super Sabre and Lockheed A-12 and SR-71.[citation needed]

Throughout the Cold War period, titanium was considered a strategic material by the U.S. government, and a hugestockpile of titanium sponge (a porous form of the pure metal) was maintained by the Defense National Stockpile Center, until the stockpile was dispersed in the 2000s. In 2006, Russian-based VSMPO-AVISMA was the globes biggestproducer, accounting for about 29% of the globemarket. As of 2015, the seven countries that produced titanium sponge were, in order of output, China, Japan, Russia, Kazakhstan, the U.S., Ukraine, and India.


Titanium (mineral concentrate)
Primarytitanium products: plate, tube, rods, and powder

The processing of titanium metal occurs in four major steps: reduction of titanium ore into "sponge", a porous form; melting of sponge, or sponge plus a master alloy to form an ingot; basicfabrication, where an ingot is converted into general mill products such as billet, bar, plate, sheet, strip, and tube; and secondary fabrication of finished shapes from mill products.[citation needed]

Because it cannot be readily produced by reduction of titanium dioxide, titanium metal is obtained by reduction of TiCl4 with magnesium metal in the Kroll process. The complexity of this batch production in the Kroll process explains the relatively high market value of titanium, despite the Kroll process being less expensive than the Hunter process. To produce the TiCl4 neededby the Kroll process, the dioxide is subjected to carbothermic reduction in the presence of chlorine. In this process, the chlorine gas is passed over a red-hot mixture of rutile or ilmenite in the presence of carbon. After extensive purification by fractional distillation, the TiCl4 is reduced with 800 °C (1,470 °F) molten magnesium in an argon atmosphere. Titanium metal shouldbe further purified by the van Arkel–de Boer process, which involves thermal decomposition of titanium tetraiodide.

2 FeTiO3 + 7 Cl2 + 6 C → 2 TiCl4 + 2 FeCl3 + 6 CO (900 °C)
TiCl4 + 2 Mg → 2 MgCl2 + Ti (1,100 °C)

A more recently developed batch production method, the FFC Cambridge process, reduces titanium dioxide electrochemically in molten calcium chloride to produce titanium metal as either powder or sponge. If mixed oxide powders are utilize, the product is an alloy.[citation needed]

Common titanium alloys are angry by reduction. For example, cuprotitanium (rutile with copper added is reduced), ferrocarbon titanium (ilmenite reduced with coke in an electric furnace), and manganotitanium (rutile with manganese or manganese oxides) are reduced.

About fifty grades of titanium alloys are plannedand currently utilize, although only a couple of dozen are readily accessiblecommercially. The ASTM International recognizes 31 grades of titanium metal and alloys, of which grades one through four are commercially pure (unalloyed). Those four vary in tensile strength as a function of oxygen content, with grade 1 being the most ductile (lowest tensile strength with an oxygen materialof 0.18%), and grade 4 the least ductile (highest tensile strength with an oxygen materialof 0.40%). The remaining grades are alloys, each plannedfor specific properties of ductility, strength, hardness, electrical resistivity, creep resistance, specific corrosion resistance, and combinations thereof.

In addition to the ASTM specifications, titanium alloys are also produced to meet aerospace and military specifications (SAE-AMS, MIL-T), ISO standards, and country-specific specifications, as well as proprietary end-utilize specifications for aerospace, military, medical, and industrial app.

Titanium powder is manufactured using a flow production process known as the Armstrong process that is similar to the batch production Hunter process. A stream of titanium tetrachloride gas is added to a stream of molten sodium; the products (sodium chloride salt and titanium particles) is filtered from the extra sodium. Titanium is then separated from the salt by water washing. Both sodium and chlorine are recycled to produce and process more titanium tetrachloride.


All welding of titanium must be done in an inert atmosphere of argon or helium to shield it from contamination with atmospheric gases (oxygen, nitrogen, and hydrogen). Contamination causes a variety of conditions, such as embrittlement, which reduce the integrity of the assembly welds and lead to joint failure.[citation needed]

Titanium cannot be soldered without first pre-plating it in a metal that is solderable. The metal shouldbe machined with the same equipment and the same processes as stainless steel.

Forming and forging

Commercially pure flat product (sheet, plate) shouldbe formed readily, but processing must take into accof the tendency of the metal to springback. This is especially true of certain high-strength alloys. Exposure to the oxygen in air at the elevated temperatures utilize in forging effect in formation of an brittle oxygen-rich metallic surface layer called "alpha case" that worsens the fatigue properties, so it must be removed by milling, etching, or electrochemical treatment.


A titanium cylinder of "grade 2" quality

Titanium is utilize in steel as an alloying element (ferro-titanium) to reduce grain size and as a deoxidizer, and in stainless steel to reduce carbon content. Titanium is often alloyed with aluminium (to refine grain size), vanadium, copper (to harden), iron, manganese, molybdenum, and other metals. Titanium mill products (sheet, plate, bar, wire, forgings, castings) searchappin industrial, aerospace, recreational, and emerging markets. Powdered titanium is utilize in pyrotechnics as a source of bright-burning particles.[citation needed]

Pigments, additives, and coatings

Titanium dioxide is the most commonly utilize compound of titanium

About 95% of all titanium ore is destined for refinement into titanium dioxide (TiO
), an intensely white permanent pigment utilize in paints, paper, toothpaste, and plastics. It is also utilize in cement, in gemstones, as an optical opacifier in paper, and a strengthening agent in graphite composite fishing rods and golf clubs.

pigment is chemically inert, resists fading in sunlight, and is very opaque: it imparts a pure and brilliant white colour to the brown or grey chemicals that form the majority of household plastics. In nature, this compound is found in the minerals anatase, brookite, and rutile. Paint angry with titanium dioxide does well in severe temperatures and marine environments. Pure titanium dioxide has a very high index of refraction and an optical dispersion higher than diamond. In addition to being a very necessarypigment, titanium dioxide is also utilize in sunscreens.

Aerospace and marine

Because titanium alloys have high tensile strength to density ratio, high corrosion resistance, fatigue resistance, high crack resistance, and ability to withstand moderately high temperatures without creeping, they are utilize in aircraft, armour plating, naval ships, spacecraft, and missiles. For these app, titanium is alloyed with aluminium, zirconium, nickel, vanadium, and other elements to manufacture a variety of components including critical structural parts, fire walls, landing gear, exhaust ducts (helicopters), and hydraulic systems. In fact, about two thirds of all titanium metal produced is utilize in aircraft engines and frames. The titanium 6AL-4V alloy acc for almost 50% of all alloys utilize in aircraft app.

The Lockheed A-12 and its development the SR-71 "Blackbird" were two of the first aircraft frames where titanium was utilize, paving the methodfor much wider utilizein modern military and commercial aircraft. An estimated 59 metric tons (130,000 pounds) are utilize in the Boeing 777, 45 in the Boeing 747, 18 in the Boeing 737, 32 in the Airbus A340, 18 in the Airbus A330, and 12 in the Airbus A320. The Airbus A380 may utilize77 metric tons, including about 11 tons in the engines. In aero engine app, titanium is utilize for rotors, compressor blades, hydraulic system components, and nacelles. An early utilizein jet engines was for the Orenda Iroquois in the 1950s.: 412 

Because titanium is resistant to corrosion by sea water, it is utilize to make propeller shafts, rigging, and heat exchangers in desalination plants; heater-chillers for salt water aquariums, fishing line and leader, and divers' knives. Titanium is utilize in the housings and components of ocean-deployed surveillance and monitoring devices for science and the military. The former Soviet Union developed techniques for making submarines with hulls of titanium alloys forging titanium in largevacuum tubes.

Titanium is utilize in the walls of the Juno spacecraft's vault to shield on-board electronics.


High-purity (99.999%) titanium with visible crystallites

Welded titanium pipe and process equipment (heat exchangers, tanks, process vessels, valves) are utilize in the chemical and petrochemical industries primarily for corrosion resistance. Specific alloys are utilize in oil and gas downhole app and nickel hydrometallurgy for their high strength (e. g.: titanium beta C alloy), corrosion resistance, or both. The pulp and paper industry utilize titanium in process equipment exposed to corrosive media, such as sodium hypochlorite or wet chlorine gas (in the bleachery). Other app include ultrasonic welding, wave soldering, and sputtering targets.

Titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4), a colorless liquid, is necessaryas an intermediate in the process of making TiO2 and is also utilize to produce the Ziegler–Natta catalyst. Titanium tetrachloride is also utilize to iridize glass and, because it fumes strongly in moist air, it is utilize to make smoke screens.

Consumer and architectural

Titanium metal is utilize in automotive app, particularly in automobile and motorcycle racing where low weight and high strength and rigidity are critical. The metal is generally too expensive for the general consumer market, though some late model Corvettes have been manufactured with titanium exhausts, and a Corvette Z06's LT4 supercharged engine utilize lightweight, solid titanium intake valves for greater strength and resistance to heat.

Titanium is utilize in many sporting awesome: tennis rackets, golf clubs, lacrosse stick shafts; cricket, hockey, lacrosse, and football helmet grills, and bikeframes and components. Although not a mainstream contentfor bikeproduction, titanium bicycle have been utilize by racing squad and journeycyclists.

Titanium alloys are utilize in spectacle frames that are rather expensive but highly durable, long lasting, light weight, and cause no skin allergies. Many backpackers utilizetitanium equipment, including cookware, eating utensils, lanterns, and tent stakes. Though slightly more expensive than traditional steel or aluminium alternatives, titanium products shouldbe significantly lighter without compromising strength. Titanium horseshoes are preferred to steel by farriers because they are lighter and more durable.

Titanium cladding of Frank Gehry's Guggenheim Museum, Bilbao

Titanium has occasionally been utilize in architecture. The 42.5 m (139 ft) Monument to Yuri Gagarin, the first man to travel in space (55°42′29.7″N 37°34′57.2″E / 55.708250°N 37.582556°E / 55.708250; 37.582556), as well as the 110 m (360 ft) Monument to the Conquerors of Space on top of the Cosmonaut Museum in Moscow are angry of titanium for the metal's beautifulcolour and association with rocketry. The Guggenheim Museum Bilbao and the Cerritos Millennium Library were the first buildings in Europe and North America, respectively, to be sheathed in titanium panels. Titanium sheathing was utilize in the Frederic C. Hamilton Building in Denver, Colorado.

Because of titanium's superior strength and light weight relative to other metals (steel, stainless steel, and aluminium), and because of lastestadvances in metalworking techniques, its utilizehas become more widespread in the manufacture of firearms. Basicutilize containpistol frames and revolver cylinders. For the same reasons, it is utilize in the body of laptop computers (for example, in Apple's PowerBook line).

Some upmarket lightweight and corrosion-resistant tools, such as shovels and flashlights, are angry of titanium or titanium alloys.[citation needed]


Relation between voltage and color for anodized titanium. (Cateb, 2010).

Because of its durability, titanium has become more famousfor designer jewelry (particularly, titanium rings). Its inertness makes it a awesomechoice for those with allergies or those who will be wearing the jewelry in environments such as swimming pools. Titanium is also alloyed with gold to produce an alloy that shouldbe marketed as 24-karat gold because the 1% of alloyed Ti is insufficient to require a lesser mark. The resulting alloy is roughly the hardness of 14-karat gold and is more durable than pure 24-karat gold.

Titanium's durability, light weight, and dent and corrosion resistance make it useful for watch cases. Some artists work with titanium to produce sculptures, decorative objects and furniture.

Titanium may be anodized to vary the thickness of the surface oxide layer, causing optical interference fringes and a variety of bright colors. With this coloration and chemical inertness, titanium is a famousmetal for body piercing.

Titanium has a minor utilizein dedicated non-circulating coins and medals. In 1999, Gibraltar released the globes first titanium coin for the millennium celebration. The Gold Coast Titans, an Australian rugby league team, award a medal of pure titanium to their player of the year.


Because titanium is biocompatible (non-toxic and not rejected by the body), it has many medical utilize, including surgical implements and implants, such as hip balls and sockets (joint replacement) and dental implants that shouldstay in territoryfor up to 20 years. The titanium is often alloyed with about 4% aluminium or 6% Al and 4% vanadium.

Medical screws and plate utilize to repair wrist fractures. Scale is in centimeters.

Titanium has the inherent ability to osseointegrate, enabling utilizein dental implants that shouldlast for over 30 years. This property is also useful for orthopedic implant app. These benefit from titanium's lower modulus of elasticity (Young's modulus) to more closely match that of the bone that such devices are intended to repair. As a result, skeletal loads are more evenly shared between bone and implant, leading to a lower incidence of bone degradation due to stress shielding and periprosthetic bone fractures, which occur at the boundaries of orthopedic implants. However, titanium alloys' stiffness is still more than twice that of bone, so adjacent bone bears a greatly reduced load and may deteriorate.

Because titanium is non-ferromagnetic, patients with titanium implants shouldbe safely examined with magnetic resonance imaging (convenient for long-term implants). Preparing titanium for implantation in the body involves subjecting it to a high-temperature plasma arc which removes the surface atoms, exposing newtitanium that is instantly oxidized.

Modern advancements in additive manufacturing techniques have increased potential for titanium utilizein orthopedic implant app. Complex implant scaffold designs shouldbe 3D-printed using titanium alloys, which let for more patient-specific app and increased implant osseointegration.

Titanium is utilize for the surgical instruments utilize in image-tutorial surgery, as well as wheelchairs, crutches, and any other products where high strength and low weight are desirable.[citation needed]

Titanium dioxide nanoparticles are widely utilize in electronics and the delivery of pharmaceuticals and cosmetics.

Nuclear waste storage

Because of its corrosion resistance, containers angry of titanium have been studied for the long-term storage of nuclear waste. Containers lasting more than 100,000 years are thought possible with manufacturing conditions that minimize contentdefects. A titanium "drip shield" could also be installed over containers of other kind to enhance their longevity.


Titanium is non-toxic even in hugedoses and does not play any natural role inside the human body. An estimated quantity of 0.8 milligrams of titanium is ingested by humans each day, but most passes through without being absorbed in the tissues. It does, however, sometimes bio-accumulate in tissues that contain silica. One study indicates a possible connection between titanium and yellow nail syndrome.

As a powder or in the form of metal shavings, titanium metal poses a significant fire hazard and, when heated in air, an explosion hazard. Water and carbon dioxide are ineffective for extinguishing a titanium fire; Class D dry powder agents must be utilize instead.

When utilize in the production or handling of chlorine, titanium cannot be exposed to dry chlorine gas because it may effectin a titanium–chlorine fire.

Titanium shouldcatch fire when a fresh, non-oxidized surface comes in contact with liquid oxygen.

Function in plants

Nettles includeup to 80 parts per million of titanium.

An unknown mechanism in plants may utilizetitanium to stimulate the production of carbohydrates and encourage growth. This may explain why most plants includeabout 1 part per million (ppm) of titanium, mealplants have about 2 ppm, and horsetail and nettle includeup to 80 ppm.

See also


  • Barksdale, Jelks (1968). . In Clifford A. Hampel (ed.). The Encyclopedia of the Chemical Elements. FreshYork: Reinhold Book Corporation. pp. . LCCN 68029938.
  • Donachie, Matthew J., Jr. (1988). . Metals Park, OH: ASM International. p. 11. ISBN 978-0-87170-309-5.
  • Emsley, John (2001). . . Oxford, England, UK: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-850340-8.
  • Flower, Harvey M. (2000). "Content Science: A moving oxygen story". Nature. 407 (6802): 305–306. doi:. PMID 11014169.
  • Greenwood, N. N.; Earnshaw, A. (1997). Chemistry of the Elements (2nd ed.). Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann. ISBN 978-0-7506-3365-9.
  • Roza, Greg (2008). (First ed.). FreshYork, NY: The Rosen Publishing Group. ISBN 978-1-4042-1412-5.

Listen to this article (15 minutes)
This audio file was madefrom a revision of this article dated 25 August 2005 (2005-08-25), and does not reflect subsequent edits.
  • , FamousScience, October 1950—one of first general public detailed articles on Titanium
  • at The Periodic Table of Videos (University of Nottingham)
  • at The NecessaryChemical Industry – online (CIEC Promoting Science at the University of York)
  • 4 November 2020 at the Wayback Machine

Titanium Hack Mod Tricks with Tons of Advices and Bonuses.



Titanium, 22TiTitaniumPronunciationAppearancesilvery grey-white metallicStandard atomic weight Ar, std(Ti)47.867(1)Titanium in the periodic table
Hydrogen Helium
Lithium Beryllium Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Neon
Sodium Magnesium Aluminium Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon
Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton
Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Silver Cadmium Indium Tin Antimony Tellurium Iodine Xenon
Caesium Barium Lanthanum Cerium Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Samarium Europium Gadolinium Terbium Dysprosium Holmium Erbium Thulium Ytterbium Lutetium Hafnium Tantalum Tungsten Rhenium Osmium Iridium Platinum Gold Mercury (element) Thallium Lead Bismuth Polonium Astatine Radon
Francium Radium Actinium Thorium Protactinium Uranium Neptunium Plutonium Americium Curium Berkelium Californium Einsteinium Fermium Mendelevium Nobelium Lawrencium Rutherfordium Dubnium Seaborgium Bohrium Hassium Meitnerium Darmstadtium Roentgenium Copernicium Nihonium Flerovium Moscovium Livermorium Tennessine Oganesson


Atomic number (Z)22Groupgroup 4Periodperiod 4Block  d-blockElectron configuration[Ar] 3d2 4s2Electrons per shell2, 8, 10, 2Physical propertiesPhase at STPsolidMelting point1941 K ​(1668 °C, ​3034 °F) Boiling point3560 K ​(3287 °C, ​5949 °F) Density (near r.t.)4.506 g/cm3when liquid (at m.p.)4.11 g/cm3 Heat of fusion14.15 kJ/mol Heat of vaporization425 kJ/mol Molar heat capacity25.060 J/(mol·K) Vapor pressure
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 1982 2171 (2403) 2692 3064 3558
Atomic propertiesOxidation states−2, −1, 0, +1, +2, +3, +4 (an amphoteric oxide)ElectronegativityPauling scale: 1.54 Ionization energies
  • 1st: 658.8 kJ/mol
  • 2nd: 1309.8 kJ/mol
  • 3rd: 2652.5 kJ/mol
  • (more)
Atomic radiusempirical: 147 pm Covalent radius160±8 pm
Spectral lines of titaniumOther propertiesNatural occurrenceprimordialCrystal structurehexagonal close-packed (hcp)
Speed of sound thin rod5090 m/s (at r.t.) Thermal expansion8.6 µm/(m⋅K) (at 25 °C) Thermal conductivity21.9 W/(m⋅K) Electrical resistivity420 nΩ⋅m (at 20 °C) Magnetic orderingparamagnetic Molar magnetic susceptibility+153.0×10−6 cm3/mol (293 K)Young's modulus116 GPa Shear modulus44 GPa Bulk modulus110 GPa Poisson ratio0.32 Mohs hardness6.0 Vickers hardness830–3420 MPa Brinell hardness716–2770 MPa CAS Number7440-32-6 HistoryDiscoveryWilliam Gregor (1791)First isolationJöns Jakob Berzelius (1825)Named byMartin Heinrich Klaproth (1795)Main isotopes of titanium
Iso­tope Abun­dance Half-life (t1/2) Decay mode Pro­duct
44Ti syn 63 y ε 44Sc
46Ti 8.25% stable
47Ti 7.44% stable
48Ti 73.72% stable
49Ti 5.41% stable
50Ti 5.18% stable
 Category: Titanium
| references
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