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About

Symbian is a discontinued mobile operating system (OS) and computing platform plannedfor smartphones. Symbian was originally developed as a proprietary software OS for PDAs in 1998 by the Symbian Ltd. consortium. Symbian OS is a descendant of Psion's EPOC, and was released exclusively on ARM processors, although an unreleased x86 port existed. Symbian was utilize by many major mobile telephonebrands, like Samsung, Motorola, Sony Ericsson, and above all by Nokia. It was also prevalent in Japan by brands including Fujitsu, Sharp and Mitsubishi. As a pioneer that established the smartphone industry, it was the most famoussmartphone OS on a worldwide average until the end of 2010, at a time when smartphones were in limited use, when it was overtaken by iOS and Android. It was notably less famousin North America.

The Symbian OS platform is formed of two components: one being the microkernel-based operating system with its associated libraries, and the other being the utilize interface (as middleware), which provides the graphical shell atop the OS. The most prominent utilize interface was the S60 (formerly Series 60) platform built by Nokia, first released in 2002 and powering most Nokia Symbian devices. UIQ was a competing utilize interface mostly utilize by Motorola and Sony Ericsson that focused on pen-based devices, rather than a traditional keyboard interface from S60. Another interface was the MOAP(S) platform from carrier NTT DoCoMo in the Japanese market. App of these different interfaces were not compatible with each other, despite each being built atop Symbian OS. Nokia became the biggestshareholder of Symbian Ltd. in 2004 and purchased the entire organizationin 2008. The non-profit Symbian Foundation was then madeto make a royalty-free successor to Symbian OS. Seeking to unify the platform, S60 became the Foundation's favoured interface and UIQ stopped development. The touchscreen-focused Symbian^1 (or S60 5th Edition) was madeas a effectin 2009. Symbian^2 (based on MOAP) was utilize by NTT DoCoMo, one of the members of the Foundation, for the Japanese market. Symbian^3 was released in 2010 as the successor to S60 5th Edition, by which time it became fully free software. The transition from a proprietary operating system to a free programproject is trust to be one of the biggestin history. Symbian^3 get the Anna and Belle updates in 2011.

The Symbian Foundation disintegrated in late 2010 and Nokia took back control of the OS development. In February 2011, Nokia, by now the only remaining organizationstill supporting Symbian outside Japan, announced that it would use Microsoft's Windows Telephone7 as its basicsmartphone platform, while Symbian would be gradually wound down. Two months later, Nokia moved the OS to proprietary licensing, only collaborating with the Japanese OEMs and later outsourced Symbian development to Accenture. Although assistancewas promised until 2016, including two major designedupdates, by 2012 Nokia had mostly abandoned development and most Symbian developers had already left Accenture, and in January 2014 Nokia stopped accepting freshor modify Symbian programfrom developers. The Nokia 808 PureView in 2012 was officially the last Symbian smartphone from Nokia. NTT DoCoMo continued releasing OPP(S) (Operator PackageSymbian, successor of MOAP) devices in Japan, which still act as middleware on top of Symbian. Telephone running this containthe F-07F [] from Fujitsu and SH-07F [] from Sharp in 2014.

History

Logo of Symbian OS until the Symbian Foundation was formed in 2008

Symbian originated from EPOC32, an operating system madeby Psion in the 1990s. In June 1998, Psion Programbecame Symbian Ltd., a major joint venture between Psion and telephonemanufacturers Ericsson, Motorola, and Nokia.

Afterwards, different programplatforms were madefor Symbian, backed by different groups of mobile telephonemanufacturers. They include S60 (Nokia, Samsung and LG), UIQ (Sony Ericsson and Motorola) and MOAP(S) (Japanese only such as Fujitsu, Sharp etc.).

With no major tournamentin the smartphone OS then (Palm OS and Windows Mobile were comparatively tinyplayers), Symbian reached as high as 67% of the global smartphone market share in 2006.

Despite its sizable market share then, Symbian was at various stages difficult to develop for: First (at around early-to-mid-2000s) due to the complexity of then the only native programming languages Open Programming Language (OPL) and Symbian C++, and of the OS; then the stubborn developer bureaucracy, along with high prices of various integrated development environments (IDEs) and programdevelopment kits (SDKs), which were prohibitive for independent or very tinydevelopers; and then the subsequent fragmentation, which was in part caused by infighting among and within manufacturers, each of which also had their own IDEs and SDKs. All of this discouraged third-party developers, and served to cause the native applicationecosystem for Symbian not to evolve to a scale later reached by Apple's ApplicationShopor Android's Google Play.

By contrast, iPhone OS (renamed iOS in 2010) and Android had comparatively easy design, deliveredeasier and much more centralized infrastructure to create and obtain third-party application, offered certain developer tools and programming languages with a manageable level of complexity, and having abilities such as multitasking and graphics to meet future consumer demands.

Although Symbian was difficult to softwarefor, this problemcould be worked around by creating Java Mobile Edition application, ostensibly under a "write once, run anywhere" slogan. This wasn't always the case because of fragmentation due to different device screen sizes and differences in levels of Java ME assistanceon various devices.

In June 2008, Nokia announced the acquisition of Symbian Ltd., and a freshindependent non-profit companycalled the Symbian Foundation was established. Symbian OS and its relatedutilize interfaces S60, UIQ, and MOAP(S) were contributed by their registrant Nokia, NTT DoCoMo, Sony Ericsson, and Symbian Ltd., to the foundation with the objective of creating the Symbian platform as a royalty-free, Free software, under the Free ProgramFoundation (FSF) and Open Source Initiative (OSI) approved Eclipse Public License (EPL). The platform was designated as the successor to Symbian OS, following the official beginof the Symbian Foundation in April 2009. The Symbian platform was officially angry accessibleas Free software in February 2010.

Nokia became the major contributor to Symbian's code, since it then possessed the development resources for both the Symbian OS core and the utilize interface. Since then Nokia maintained its own code repository for the platform development, regularly releasing its development to the public repository. Symbian was intended to be developed by a community led by the Symbian Foundation, which was first announced in June 2008 and which officially launched in April 2009. Its objective was to publish the source code for the entire Symbian platform under the OSI and FSF approved EPL). The code was published under EPL on 4 February 2010; Symbian Foundation reported this happeningto be the biggestcodebase moved to Free software in history.

However, some necessarycomponents within Symbian OS were licensed from third parties, which prevented the foundation from publishing the full source under EPL immediately; instead much of the source was published under a more restrictive Symbian Foundation License (SFL) and admissionto the full source code was limited to member companies only, although membership was open to any organisation. Also, the Free software Qt framework was introduced to Symbian in 2010, as the basicmodernizepath to MeeGo, which was to be the next mobile operating system to replace and supplant Symbian on high-end devices; Qt was by its nature free and very convenient to develop with. Several other frameworks were deployed to the platform, among them Standard C and C++, Python, Ruby, and Adobe Flash Lite. IDEs and SDKs were developed and then released for free, and appsoftware (app) development for Symbian picked up.

In November 2010, the Symbian Foundation announced that due to modify in global economic and market conditions (and also a lack of assistancefrom members such as Samsung and Sony Ericsson), it would transition to a licensing-only organisation; Nokia announced it would take over the stewardship of the Symbian platform. Symbian Foundation would remain the trademark holder and licensing entity and would only have non-executive directors involved.

With market share sliding from 39% in Q32010 to 31% in Q42010, Symbian was losing ground to iOS and Android quickly, eventually falling behind Android in Q42010. Stephen Elop was appointed the CEO of Nokia in September 2010, and on 11 February 2011, he announced a partnership with Microsoft that would see Nokia adopt Windows Phone as its basicsmartphone platform, and Symbian would be gradually phased out, together with MeeGo. As a consequence, Symbian's market share fell, and appdevelopers for Symbian dropped out rapidly. Research in June 2011 indicated that over 39% of mobile developers using Symbian at the time of postwere planning to abandon the platform.

By 5 April 2011, Nokia ceased to make free any portion of the Symbian programand reduced its collaboration to a tinygroup of preselected partners in Japan. Source code released under the original EPL remains accessiblein third party repositories, including a full set of all public code from the project as of 7 December 2010.

On 22 June 2011, Nokia angry an agreement with Accenture for an outsourcing program. Accenture will provide Symbian-based programdevelopment and assistanceservices to Nokia through 2016; about 2,800 Nokia employees became Accenture employees as of October 2011. The transfer was completed on 30 September 2011.

Nokia terminated its assistanceof programdevelopment and maintenance for Symbian with resultfrom 1 January 2014, thereafter refusing to publish freshor modify Symbian app or materialin the Nokia Shopand terminating its 'Symbian Signed' softwarefor programcertification.

Features

Registrarinterface

Symbian has had a native graphics toolkit since its inception, known as AVKON (formerly known as Series 60). S60 was plannedto be manipulated by a keyboard-like interface metaphor, such as the ~15-key augmented phonekeypad, or the mini-QWERTY keyboards. AVKON-based programis binary-compatible with Symbian versions up to and including Symbian^3.

Symbian^3 contain the Qt framework, which is now the suggestedutilize interface toolkit for freshapp. Qt shouldalso be installed on older Symbian devices.

Symbian^4 was designedto introduce a freshGUI library framework specifically plannedfor a touch-based interface, known as "UI Extensions for Mobile" or UIEMO (internal project name "Orbit"), which was built on top of Qt Widget; a preview was released in January 2010, however in October 2010 Nokia announced that Orbit/UIEMO had been cancelled.

Nokia later suggestedthat developers use Qt Quick with QML, the freshhigh-level declarative UI and scripting framework for creating visually rich touchscreen interfaces that permitteddevelopment for both Symbian and MeeGo; it would be providedto existing Symbian^3 devices as a Qt update. When more app gradually feature a utilize interface reworked in Qt, the legacy S60 framework (AVKON) would be deprecated and no longer contain with freshdevices at some point, thus breaking binary compatibility with older S60 app.

Browser

Symbian S60 5th edition on a Samsung Omnia HD

Symbian^3 and earlier have a built-in WebKit based browser. Symbian was the first mobile platform to make utilizeof WebKit (in June 2005). Some older Symbian models have Opera Mobile as their default browser.

Nokia released a freshbrowser with the release of Symbian Anna with improved speed and an improved utilize interface.

Multiple language support

Symbian had powerfullocalization assistanceenabling manufacturers and 3rd party appdevelopers to localize Symbian based products to assistanceglobal distribution. Nokia angry languages accessiblein the device, in language package: a set of languages which cover those commonly spoken in the locationwhere a device variant is to be sold. All language package have in common English, or a locally relevant dialect of it. The last release, Symbian Belle, assistance these 48 languages, with [dialects], and (scripts):

  • Arabic (Arabic)
  • Basque (Latin)
  • Bulgarian (Cyrillic)
  • Catalan (Latin)
  • Chinese [PRC] (Simplified Chinese)
  • Chinese [Hong Kong] (Traditional Chinese)
  • Chinese [Taiwan] (Traditional Chinese)
  • Croatian (Latin)
  • Czech (Latin)
  • Danish (Latin)
  • Dutch (Latin)
  • English [UK] (Latin)
  • English [US] (Latin)
  • Estonian (Latin)
  • Finnish (Latin)
  • French (Latin)
  • French [Canadian] (Latin)
  • Galician (Latin)
  • German (Latin)
  • Greek (Greek)
  • Hebrew (Hebrew)
  • Hindi (Indian)
  • Hungarian (Latin)
  • Icelandic (Latin)
  • Indonesian [Bahasa Indonesia] (Latin)
  • Italian (Latin)
  • Japanese (Japanese script)*
  • Kazakh (Cyrillic)
  • Latvian (Latin)
  • Lithuanian (Latin)
  • Malay [Bahasa Malaysia] (Latin)
  • Marathi (India: Maharashtra)
  • Norwegian (Latin)
  • Persian [Farsi]
  • Polish (Latin)
  • Portuguese (Latin)
  • Portuguese [Brazilian] (Latin)
  • Romanian [Romania] (Latin)
  • Russian (Cyrillic)
  • Serbian (Latin)
  • Slovak (Latin)
  • Slovene (Latin)
  • Spanish (Latin)
  • Spanish [Latin America] (Latin)
  • Swedish (Latin)
  • Tagalog [Filipino] (Latin)
  • Thai (Thai)
  • Tamil (India)
  • Turkish (Latin)
  • Ukrainian (Cyrillic)
  • Urdu (Arabic)
  • Vietnamese (Latin)

Symbian Belle marks the introduction of Kazakh, while Korean is no longer supported.

  • Japanese is only accessibleon Symbian^2 devices as they are angry in Japan, and on other Symbian devices Japanese is still supported with limitations.

Appdevelopment

From 2010, Symbian switched to using standard C++ with Qt as the main SDK, which shouldbe utilize with either Qt Creator or Carbide.c++. Qt assistance the older Symbian/S60 3rd (starting with Feature Package1, a.k.a. S60 3.1) and Symbian/S60 5th Edition (a.k.a. S60 5.01b) releases, as well as the freshSymbian platform. It also assistance Maemo and MeeGo, Windows, Linux and Mac OS X.

Alternative appdevelopment shouldbe done using Python (see Python for S60), Adobe Flash Lite or Java ME.

Symbian OS previously utilize a Symbian specific C++ version, along with CodeWarrior and later Carbide.c++ integrated development environment (IDE), as the native appdevelopment environment.

Web Run time (WRT) is a portable appframework that let creating widgets on the S60 Platform; it is an extension to the S60 WebKit based browser that let launching multiple browser instances as separate JavaScript app.

Appdevelopment

Qt

As of 2010, the SDK for Symbian is standard C++, using Qt. It shouldbe utilize with either Qt Creator, or Carbide (the older IDE previously utilize for Symbian development). A telephonesimulator let testing of Qt application. Application compiled for the simulator are compiled to native code for the development platform, rather than having to be emulated. Appdevelopment shouldeither utilizeC++ or QML.

Symbian C++

As Symbian OS is written in C++ using Symbian Programs coding standards, it is possible to develop using Symbian C++, although it is not a standard implementation. Before the release of the Qt SDK, this was the standard development environment. There were multiple platforms based on Symbian OS that provided programdevelopment kits (SDKs) for appdevelopers wishing to target Symbian OS devices, the main ones being UIQ and S60. Individual telephoneproducts, or families, often had SDKs or SDK extensions downloadable from the maker's domaintoo.

The SDKs includedocumentation, the header files and library files requiredto build Symbian OS software, and a Windows-based emulator ("WINS"). Up until Symbian OS version 8, the SDKs also contain a version of the GNU Compiler Collection (GCC) compiler (a cross-compiler) requiredto build programto work on the device.

Symbian OS 9 and the Symbian platform utilizea new appbinary interface (ABI) and requireda different compiler. A choice of compilers is accessibleincluding a newer version of GCC (see external links below).

Unfortunately, Symbian C++ programming has a steep learning curve, as Symbian C++ requires the utilizeof special techniques such as descriptors, active objects and the cleanup stack. This shouldmake even relatively easysoftware initially harder to implement than in other environments. It is possible that the techniques, developed for the much more restricted mobile hardware and compilers of the 1990s, caused extra complexity in source code because programmers are neededto concentrate on low-level details instead of more application-specific features. As of 2010, these problemsare no longer the case when using standard C++, with the Qt SDK.

Symbian C++ programming is commonly done with an integrated development environment (IDE). For earlier versions of Symbian OS, the commercial IDE CodeWarrior for Symbian OS was favoured. The CodeWarrior tools were replaced during 2006 by Carbide.c++, an Eclipse-based IDE developed by Nokia. Carbide.c++ is offered in four different versions: Express, Developer, Professional, and OEM, with increasing levels of capability. Fully featured programshouldbe madeand released with the Express edition, which is free. Features such as UI design, crash debugging etc. are accessiblein the other, charged-for, editions. Microsoft Visual Studio 2003 and 2005 are also supported via the Carbide.vs plugin.

Other languages

Symbian v9.1 with a S60v3 interface, on a Nokia E61

Symbian devices shouldalso be programmed using Python, Java ME, Flash Lite, Ruby, .NET, Web Runtime (WRT) Widgets and Standard C/C++.

Visual Primaryprogrammers shoulduse NS Basic to develop application for S60 3rd Edition and UIQ 3 devices.

In the past, Visual Basic,[disambiguation needed] Visual Basic .NET, and C# development for Symbian were possible through AppForge Crossfire, a plugin for Microsoft Visual Studio. On 13 March 2007 AppForge ceased operations; Oracle purchased the intellectual property, but announced that they did not plan to sell or provide assistancefor former AppForge products. Net60, a .NET compact framework for Symbian, which is developed by redFIVElabs, is sold as a commercial product. With Net60, VB.NET, and C# (and other) source code is compiled into an intermediate language (IL) which is executed within the Symbian OS using a just-in-time compiler. (As of 18 January 2010, RedFiveLabs has ceased development of Net60 with this announcement on their landing page: "At this stage we are pursuing some options to sell the IP so that Net60 may continue to have a future.")

There is also a version of a Borland IDE for Symbian OS. Symbian development is also possible on Linux and macOS using tools and way developed by the community, partly enabled by Symbian releasing the source code for key tools. A plugin that let development of Symbian OS app in Apple's Xcode IDE for Mac OS X was available.

Java ME app for Symbian OS are developed using standard techniques and tools such as the Sun Java Wireless Toolkit (formerly the J2ME Wireless Toolkit). They are pack as JAR (and possibly JAD) files. Both CLDC and CDC app shouldbe madewith NetBeans. Other tools include SuperWaba, which shouldbe utilize to build Symbian 7.0 and 7.0s software using Java.

Nokia S60 telephone shouldalso run Python scripts when the interpreter Python for S60 is installed, with a custom angry API that let for Bluetooth assistanceand such. There is also an interactive console to letthe utilize to write Python scripts directly from the phone.

Deployment

Once developed, Symbian app need to searcha route to customers' mobile telephone. They are pack in SIS files which may be installed over-the-air, via PC connect, Bluetooth or on a memory vehicle. An alternative is to partner with a telephonemanufacturer and have the programcontain on the telephoneitself. App must be Symbian Signed for Symbian OS 9.x to make utilizeof certain capabilities (system capabilities, restricted capabilities and device manufacturer capabilities). App could be signed for free in 2010.

Architecture

Technology website and pack

Symbian's design is subdivided into technology website, each of which comprises a set of software pack. Each technology websitehas its own roadmap, and the Symbian Foundation has a squadof technology managers who manage these technology websiteroadmaps.

Every packis allocated to exactly one technology domain, based on the general functional locationto which the packcontributes and by which it may be influenced. By grouping associatedpack by themes, the Symbian Foundation hopes to encourage a powerfulcommunity to form around them and to generate discussion and review.

The Symbian System Model illustrates the scope of each of the technology website across the platform pack.

Pack are owned and maintained by a packowner, a named individual from an companymember of the Symbian Foundation, who agree code contributions from the wider Symbian community and is responsible for package.

Symbian kernel

The Symbian kernel (EKA2) assistance sufficiently fast response to build a single-core telephonearound it – that is, a telephonein which a single processor core executes both the utilize app and the signalling stack. The real-time kernel has a microkernel architecture containing only the minimum, most primaryprimitives and functionality, for maximum robustness, availability and responsiveness. It has been termed a nanokernel, because it needs an extended kernel to implement any other abstractions. It include a scheduler, memory management and device drivers, with networking, telephony, and file system assistanceservices in the OS Services Layer or the Base Services Layer. The inclusion of device drivers means the kernel is not a true microkernel.

Design

Symbian features pre-emptive multitasking and memory protection, like other operating systems (especially those madefor utilizeon desktop computers). EPOC's approach to multitasking was inspired by VMS and is based on asynchronous server-based happening.

Symbian OS was madewith three systems design principles in mind:

  1. the integrity and safetyof utilize data is paramount
  2. utilize time must not be wasted
  3. all resources are scarce

To best follow these principles, Symbian utilize a microkernel, has a request-and-callback approach to services, and maintains separation between utilize interface and engine. The OS is optimised for low-power battery-based devices and for read-only memory (ROM)-based systems (e.g. features like XIP and re-entrancy in shared libraries). The OS, and appsoftware, follows an object-oriented programming design named model–view–controller (MVC).

Later OS iterations diluted this approach in response to market demands, notably with the introduction of a real-time kernel and a platform safetymodel in versions 8 and 9.

There is a powerfulemphasis on conserving resources which is exemplified by Symbian-specific programming idioms like descriptors and a cleanup stack. Similar way exist to conserve storage space. Further, all Symbian programming is event-based, and the central processing unit (CPU) is switched into a low power mode when app are not directly dealing with an event. This is done via a programming idiom called active objects. Similarly the Symbian approach to threads and processes is driven by reducing overheads.

Operating system

The All over Model include the following layers, from top to bottom:

  • UI Framework Layer
  • AppServices Layer
  • OS Services Layer
    • generic OS services
    • communications services
    • multimedia and graphics services
    • connectivity services
  • Base Services Layer
  • Kernel Services & Hardware Interface Layer

The Base Services Layer is the lowest level reachable by utilize-side operations; it contain the File Server and RegistrarLibrary, a Plug-In Framework which manages all plug-ins, Store, Central Repository, DBMS and cryptographic services. It also contain the Text Window Server and the Text Shell: the two primaryservices from which a completely functional port shouldbe madewithout the need for any higher layer services.

Symbian has a microkernel architecture, which means that the minimum essentialis within the kernel to maximise robustness, availability and responsiveness. It include a scheduler, memory management and device drivers, but other services like networking, telephony and file system assistanceare territory in the OS Services Layer or the Base Services Layer. The inclusion of device drivers means the kernel is not a true microkernel. The EKA2 real-time kernel, which has been termed a nanokernel, include only the most primaryprimitives and requires an extended kernel to implement any other abstractions.

Symbian is plannedto emphasise compatibility with other devices, especially removable media file systems. Early development of EPOC led to adopting File Allocation Table (FAT) as the internal file system, and this remains, but an object-oriented persistence model was territory over the underlying FAT to provide a POSIX-style interface and a streaming model. The internal data formats rely on using the same APIs that create the data to run all file manipulations. This has resulted in data-dependence and relateddifficulties with modify and data migration.

There is a hugenetworking and communication subsystem, which has three main servers called: ETEL (EPOC telephony), ESOCK (EPOC sockets) and C32 (responsible for serial communication). Each of these has a plug-in scheme. For example, ESOCK let different ".PRT" protocol modules to implement various networking protocol schemes. The subsystem also include code that assistance short-range communication links, such as Bluetooth, IrDA and USB.

There is also a hugevolume of utilize interface (UI) Code. Only the base classes and substructure were contained in Symbian OS, while most of the actual utilize interfaces were maintained by third parties. This is no longer the case. The three major UIs – S60, UIQ and MOAP – were contributed to Symbian in 2009. Symbian also include graphics, text layout and font rendering libraries.

All native Symbian C++ app are built up from three framework classes defined by the apparchitecture: an appclass, a document class and an apputilize interface class. These classes create the fundamental appbehaviour. The remaining requiredfunctions, the appview, data model and data interface, are madeindependently and interact solely through their APIs with the other classes.

Many other things do not yet fit into this model – for example, SyncML, Java ME providing another set of APIs on top of most of the OS and multimedia. Many of these are frameworks, and vendors are expected to supply plug-ins to these frameworks from third parties (for example, Helix Player for multimedia codecs). This has the advantage that the APIs to such location of functionality are the same on many telephonemodels, and that vendors receivea lot of flexibility. But it means that telephonevendors requiredto do a amazingdeal of integration work to make a Symbian OS phone.

Symbian contain a reference utilize-interface called "TechView." It provides a basis for starting customisation and is the environment in which much Symbian tryand example code runs. It is very similar to the utilize interface from the Psion Series 5 privateorganiser and is not utilize for any production telephoneutilize interface.

Symbian UI variants, platforms

Symbian, as it advanced to OS version 7.0, spun off into several different graphical utilize interfaces, each backed by a certain organizationor group of companies. Unlike Android OS's cosmetic GUIs, Symbian GUIs are referred to as "platforms" due to more significant modifications and integrations. Things became more complicated when app developed for different Symbian GUI platforms were not compatible with each other, and this led to OS fragmentation.

RegistrarInterfaces platforms that run on or are based on Symbian OS include:

  • S60, Symbian, also called Series 60. It was backed mainly by Nokia. There are several editions of this platform, appearing first as S60 (1st Edition) on Nokia 7650. It was followed by S60 2nd Edition (e.g. Nokia N70), S60 3rd Edition (e.g. Nokia N73) and S60 5th Edition (which introduced touch UI e.g. Nokia N97). The name, S60, was modify to just Symbian after the formation of Symbian Foundation, and subsequently called Symbian^1, 2 and 3.
  • Series 80 utilize by Nokia Communicators such as Nokia 9300i.
  • Series 90 Touch and button based. The only telephoneusing this platform is Nokia 7710.
  • UIQ backed mainly by Sony Ericsson and then Motorola. It is compatible with both buttons and touch/stylus based inputs. The last major release version is UIQ3.1 in 2008, on Sony Ericsson G900. It was discontinued after the formation of Symbian Foundation, and the decision to consolidate different Symbian UI variants into one led to the adoption of S60 as the version going forward.
  • MOAP (Mobile Oriented App Platform) [Japan Only] utilize by Fujitsu, Mitsubishi, Sony Ericsson and Sharp-developed telephone for NTT DoCoMo. It utilize an interface developed specifically for DoCoMo's FOMA "Freedom of Mobile Access" network brand and is based on the UI from earlier Fujitsu FOMA models. The utilize cannot install freshC++ app. (Japan Only)
  • [Japan Only], successor of MOAP, utilize on NTT DoCoMo's FOMA phone.

Version comparison

Feature Symbian^3/Anna/Belle Symbian^2 Symbian^1/Series 60 5th Edition Series 60 3rd Edition UIQ (2.0) Series 80
Year released 2010 (Symbian^3), 2011 (Symbian Anna, Nokia Belle) 2010 (Japan only with MOAP/OPP middleware) 2008 2006 2002 2001
Company Symbian Foundation, later Nokia Symbian Foundation Symbian Foundation Nokia UIQ Technology Nokia
Symbian OS version 9.5 (Symbian^3/Symbian Anna), 10.1 (Nokia Belle) ? 9.4 9.3
Series 60 version 5.2 (Symbian^3/Symbian Anna), 5.3 (Nokia Belle), 5.4 (Nokia Belle FP1) 5.1 5th Edition 3rd Edition Feature Package2 N/A N/A
Touch input support Yes Yes Yes No Yes No
Multi touch input support Yes No No No No
Number of customizable home screens Three to six (Five on Nokia E6 and Nokia 500, six on Nokia Belle) One Two One
Wi-Fi version support B, G, N B, G B, G B, G B, G
USB on the go support Yes No No
DVB-H support Yes, with extra headset Un­known, but have 1seg assistancesup id="cite_ref-F07BUM_62-0" class="reference"> Yes, with extra headset Yes, with extra headset
Short range FM transmitter support Yes Yes Yes No No
FM radio support Yes ? Yes Yes Yes No
External Storage Vehicle Support MicroSD, up to 32GB MicroSD MicroSD MicroSD, MiniSD Memory Stick, MicroSD, MultiMedia Vehicle MultiMedia Vehicle
Adobe Flash support Yes, Flash Lite native version 4.0, upgradable Yes, Flash Lite native version 3.1, upgradable Yes, Flash Lite native version 3.1, upgradable Yes, Flash native version 6, not upgradable
Microsoft Silverlight support No[citation needed] Yes No[citation needed] No
OpenGL ES support Yes, version 2.0 No
SQLite support Yes Yes Yes
CPU architecture support ARM SH-Mobile ARM ARM ARM
Programmed in C++, Qt ? C++, Qt C++, Qt
License Eclipse Public License;
Since 31 March 2011: Nokia Symbian License 1.0
proprietary SFL license, while some portions of source code are EPL licensed.
Public problemslist No more
Packmanager .sis, .sisx ? .sis, .sisx .sis, .sisx .sis, .sisx .sis, .sisx
Non English languages support Yes mainly Japanese Yes Yes Yes Yes
Underlining spell checker Yes Yes Yes Yes
Hold state on shutdown or crash No No No No
Internal search Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Proxy server Yes ? Yes Yes Yes Yes
On-device encryption Yes Yes Yes Yes
Cut, copy, and paste support Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Undo No No Yes Yes Yes
Default Web Browser for S60, WebKit engine version 7.2, engine version 525 (Symbian^3); version 7.3, engine version 533.4 (Symbian Anna) version 7.1.4, engine version 525; version 7.3, engine version 533.4 (for 9 chosenunits after firmware updates released in summer 2011) engine version 413 (Nokia N79) N/A N/A
Official ApplicationStore Nokia Ovi Store i-αppli/i-Widget Nokia Ovi Store, Sony Ericsson PlayNow Arena Nokia Ovi Store, Download!
Mailsync protocol support POP3, IMAP i-mode emailsup id="cite_ref-SH08CUM_68-3" class="reference"> POP3, IMAP POP3, IMAP POP3, IMAP POP3, IMAP
NFC Support Yes No No No No No
Push alerts Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Voice recognition Yes Yes Yes Yes
Tethering USB, Bluetooth; mobile Wi-Fi hotspot, with third-party software USB, Bluetooth; mobile Wi-Fi hotspot, with third-party software USB, Bluetooth; mobile Wi-Fi hotspot, with third-party software USB, Bluetooth;
Text, document support Mobile Office App, PDF Mobile Office App, PDF Mobile Office App, PDF Mobile Office App, PDF Mobile Office App, PDF Mobile Office App, PDF
Audio playback All wma, aac[citation needed] All All wav, mp3
Video playback H.263, H.264, WMV, MPEG4, [email protected] HD 720p 25–30 frames/s, MKV, DivX, XviD WMV, MPEG4[citation needed] H.263, WMV, MPEG4, 3GPP, 3GPP2 H.263, WMV, MPEG4, 3GPP, 3GPP2 H.263, 3GPP, 3GPP2
Turn-by-turn GPS Yes, with third-party software, or Nokia Maps Yes, with monthly paid Docomo Map Navi (ドコモ地図ナビ) Yes, with third-party software, or Nokia Maps Yes, with third-party software, or Nokia Maps Yes, with third-party software
Video out Nokia AV (3.5mm), PAL, NTSC, HDMI, DLNA via Nokia Play To HDMI, and Nokia AV (3.5mm), PAL, NTSC Nokia AV (3.5mm), PAL, NTSC No
Multitasking Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Desktop interactive widgets Yes Yes Yes No
Integrated hardware keyboard Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Bluetooth keyboard Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Video symposiumfront video camera Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Shouldshare data via Bluetooth with all devices Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Skype, third-party software Yes Yes Yes
Facebook IM chat Yes ? Yes Yes
Secure Shell (SSH) Yes, third-party software Yes, third-party software Yes, third-party software
OpenVPN No, Nokia VPN shouldbe utilize No, Nokia VPN shouldbe utilize No, Nokia VPN shouldbe utilize Yes, third-party software
Remote frame buffer ?
Screenshot Yes, third-party programsup id="cite_ref-antonypranata.com_73-0" class="reference"> Yes, third-party programsup id="cite_ref-antonypranata.com_73-1" class="reference"> Yes, third-party programsup id="cite_ref-antonypranata.com_73-2" class="reference"> Yes Yes
GPU acceleration Yes No
Official SDK platform(s) Cross-platform, Windows (preferred is Qt), Carbide.c++, Java ME, Web Runtime Widgets, Flash Lite, Python for Symbian Cross-platform, Windows (preferred is Qt), Carbide.c++, Java ME, Web Runtime Widgets, Flash Lite, Python for Symbian Cross-platform, Windows (preferred is Qt), Carbide.c++, Java ME, Web Runtime Widget, Flash Lite, Python for Symbian Cross-platform, Windows (preferred is Qt), Carbide.c++, Java ME, third-party software (OPL)
Status of updates ▲ Discontinued ? Discontinued Discontinued Discontinued Discontinued
First device(s) Nokia N8 (Symbian^3), Nokia C7 (Symbian^3), Nokia X7, Nokia E6 (Anna), Nokia 603, Nokia 700, Nokia 701 (Belle) Nokia 5800 (2 October 2008) Nokia N96, Nokia N78, Nokia 6210 Navigator and Nokia 6220 Classic (11 February 2008) Sony Ericsson P800 Nokia 9210
Devices Nokia N8, Nokia C6-01, Nokia C7-00, Nokia E7-00, Nokia E6, Nokia X7, Nokia 500, Nokia 603, Nokia 600 (cancelled), Nokia 700, Nokia 701, Nokia 808 PureView NTT DoCoMo: F-06B*, F-07B*, F-08B*, SH-07B†, F-10B, Raku-Raku Telephone7, F-01C*, F-02C*, F-03C*, F-04C*, F-05C*, SH-01C†, SH-02C†, SH-04C†, SH-05C†, SH-06C†, Touch Wood SH-08C† Nokia: 5228, 5230, 5233, 5235, 5250, 5530 XpressMusic, 5800 XpressMusic, 5800 Navigation Edition, C5-03, C6-00, N97, N97 mini, X6;

Samsung: i8910 Omnia HD,

Sony Ericsson: Satio, Vivaz, Vivaz Pro

Nokia: 5320 XpressMusic, 5630 XpressMusic, 5730 XpressMusic, 6210 Navigator, 6220 Classic, 6650 fold, 6710 Navigator, 6720 Classic, 6730 Classic, 6760 Slide, 6790 Surge, E5-00, E51, E52, E55, E71, E72, E75, N78, N79, N82, N85, N86 8MP, N96, X5, C5-00;
Samsung: GT-i8510 (INNOV8), GT-i7110 (Pilot), SGH-L870, SGH-i550, SGH-G810
Sony Ericsson ...
Motorola ...
Nokia 9210, Nokia 9300, Nokia 9300i, Nokia 9500
Recentfirmware name Nokia Belle Feature Package2/ Belle Refresh Symbian^2 Symbian^1/Series 60 5th Edition Series 60 3rd Edition Feature Package2 UIQ ? Series 80

* Manufactured by Fujitsu
† Manufactured by Sharp

Market share and competition

In Q1 2004 2.4 million Symbian telephone were shipped, double the number as in Q1 2003. Symbian Ltd. was particularly impressed by progress angry in Japan.

3.7 million devices were shipped in Q3 2004, a growth of 201% compared to Q3 2003 and market share growing from 30.5% to 50.2%. However, in the United States it was much less popular, with a 6% market share in Q3 2004, well behind Palm OS (43%) and Windows Mobile (25%). This has been attributed to North American customers preferring wireless PDAs over smartphones, as well as Nokia's low popularity there.

On 16 November 2006, the 100 millionth smartphone running the OS was shipped. As of 21 July 2009, more than 250 million devices running Symbian OS had been produced.

In 2006, Symbian had 73% of the smartphone market, compared with 22.1% of the market in the second quarter of 2011.

By the end of May 2006, 10 million Symbian-powered telephone were sold in Japan, representing 11% of Symbian's total worldwide shipments of 89 million. By November 2007 the figure was 30 million, achieving a market share of 65% by June 2007 in the Japanese market.

Symbian has lost market share over the years as the market has dramatically grown, with freshcompeting platforms entering the market, though its sales have increased during the same timeframe. E.g., although Symbian's share of the global smartphone market dropped from 52.4% in 2008 to 47.2% in 2009, shipments of Symbian devices grew 4.8%, from 74.9 million units to 78.5 million units. From Q2 2009 to Q2 2010, shipments of Symbian devices grew 41.5%, by 8.0 million units, from 19,178,910 units to 27,129,340; compared to an increase of 9.6 million units for Android, 3.3 million units for RIM, and 3.2 million units for Apple.

Prior reports on device shipments as published in February 2010 showed that the Symbian devices formed a 47.2% share of the smart mobile devices shipped in 2009, with RIM having 20.8%, Apple having 15.1% (via iOS), Microsoft having 8.8% (via Windows CE and Windows Mobile) and Android having 4.7%.

In the number of "smart mobile device" sales, Symbian devices were the market leaders for 2010. Statsshowed that Symbian devices formed a 37.6% share of smart mobile devices sold, with Android having 22.7%, RIM having 16%, and Apple having 15.7% (via iOS). Some estimates indicate that the number of mobile devices shipped with the Symbian OS up to the end of Q2 2010 is 385 million.

Over the course of 2009–10, Motorola, Samsung, LG, and Sony Ericsson announced their withdrawal from Symbian in favour of alternative platforms including Google's Android, Microsoft's Windows Phone.

In Q2 2012, according to IDC worldwide market share has dropped to an all-time low of 4.4%.

Criticism

The users of Symbian in the countries with non-Latin alphabets (such as Russia, Ukraine and others) have been criticizing the complicated wayof language switching for many years. For example, if a utilize wish to kinda Latin letter, they must call the menu, click the languages item, utilizearrow keys to choose, for example, the English language from among many other languages, and then press the 'OK' button. After typing the Latin letter, the utilize must repeat the procedure to return to their native keyboard. This wayslows down typing significantly. In touch-telephone and QWERTY telephone the procedure is slightly different but remains time-consuming. All other mobile operating systems, as well as Nokia's S40 telephone, enable switching between two initially chosenlanguages by one click or a single gesture.

Early versions of the firmware for the original Nokia N97, running on Symbian^1/Series 60 5th Edition have been heavily criticized as buggy (also contributed by the low amount of RAM installed in the phone).

In November 2010, Smartphone blog All About Symbian criticized the performance of Symbian's default web browser and suggestedthe alternative browser Opera Mobile. Nokia's Senior Vice President Jo Harlow promised an updated browser in the first quarter of 2011.

There are many different versions and editions of Symbian, which led to fragmentation. Application and programmay be incompatible when installed across different versions of Symbian.

Malware

Symbian OS is topicto a variety of viruses, the best known of which is Cabir. Usually these send themselves from telephoneto telephoneby Bluetooth. So far, none have exploited any flaws in Symbian OS. Instead, they have all asked the utilize whether they wishto install the software, with somewhat prominent warnings that it shouldt be trusted, although some rely on social engineering, often in the form of messages that come with the malware: rogue software purporting to be a utility, game, or some other appfor Symbian.

However, with a view that the average mobile telephoneutilize can't have to worry about security, Symbian OS 9.x adopted a Unix-style capability model (permissions per process, not per object). Installed programis theoretically unable to do damaging things (such as costing the utilize cashby sending network data) without being digitally signed – thus making it traceable. Commercial developers who shouldafford the cost shouldapply to have their programsigned via the Symbian Signed program. Developers also have the option of self-signing their software. However, the set of accessiblefeatures does not containadmissionto Bluetooth, IrDA, GSM CellID, voice calls, GPS and few others. Some operators opted to disable all certificates other than the Symbian Signed certificates.

Some other hostile software are listed below, but all of them still require the input of the utilize to run.

  • Drever.A is a malicious SIS file trojan that attempts to disable the automatic startup from Simworks and Kaspersky Symbian Anti-Virus app.
  • Locknut.B is a malicious SIS file trojan that pretends to be a patch for Symbian S60 mobile telephone. When installed, it drops[clarification needed] a binary that will crash a critical system service component. This will prevent any appfrom being launched in the phone.
  • Mabir.A is basically Cabir with added MMS functionality. The two are written by the same author,[citation needed] and the code shares many similarities. It spreads using Bluetooth via the same routine as early variants of Cabir. As Mabir.A activates, it will findfor the first telephoneit search, and starts sending copies of itself to that phone.
  • Fontal.A is an SIS file trojan that installs a corrupted file which causes the telephoneto fail at reboot. If the utilize tries to reboot the infected phone, it will be permanently stuck on the reboot screen, and cannot be utilize without disinfection – that is, the utilizeof the reformat key combination which causes the telephoneto lose all data. Being a trojan, Fontal cannot spread by itself – the most likely methodfor the utilize to receiveinfected would be to acquire the file from untrusted sources, and then install it to the phone, inadvertently or otherwise.

A freshform of malware threat to Symbian OS in the form of 'cooked firmware' was demonstrated at the International Malware Conference, Malcon, December 2010, by Indian hacker Atul Alex.

Bypassing platform security

Symbian OS 9.x devices shouldbe hacked to remove the platform safetyintroduced in OS 9.1 onwards, allowing users to execute unsigned code. This let altering system files, and admissionto previously locked location of the OS. The cheatwas criticised by Nokia for potentially increasing the threat posed by mobile viruses as unsigned code shouldbe executed.

Version history

Version Description
EPOC16 EPOC16, originally simply named EPOC, was the operating system developed by Psion in the late 1980s and early 1990s for Psion's "SIBO" (SIxteen Bit Organisers) devices. All EPOC16 devices featured an 8086-family processor and a 16-bit architecture. EPOC16 was a single-utilize preemptive multitasking operating system, written in Intel 8086 assembly language and C and plannedto be providedin read-only memory (ROM). It supported a easyprogramming language named Open Programming Language (OPL) and an integrated development environment (IDE) named OVAL. SIBO devices contain the: MC200, MC400, Series 3 (1991–98), Series 3a, Series 3c, Series 3mx, Siena, Workabout, and Workabout mx. The MC400 and MC200, the first EPOC16 devices, shipped in 1989.

EPOC16 featured a primarily monochrome, keyboard-operated graphical interface – the hardware for which it was plannedoriginally had pointer input in the form of a digitiser panel.

In the late 1990s, the operating system was referred to as EPOC16 to distinguish it from Psion's then-freshEPOC32 OS.

EPOC32 (releases 1 to 5) The first version of EPOC32, Release 1 appeared on the Psion Series 5 ROM v1.0 in 1997. Later, ROM v1.1 featured Release 3. (Release 2 was never publicly available.) These were followed by the Psion Series 5mx, Revo / Revo plus, Psion Series 7 / netBook and netPad (which all featured Release 5).

The EPOC32 operating system, at the time simply referred to as EPOC, was later renamed Symbian OS. Adding to the confusion with names, before the modifyto Symbian, EPOC16 was often referred to as SIBO to distinguish it from the "new" EPOC. Despite the similarity of the names, EPOC32 and EPOC16 were completely different operating systems, EPOC32 being written in C++ from a freshcodebase with development beginning during the mid-1990s.

EPOC32 was a pre-emptive multitasking, single utilize operating system with memory protection, which encourages the appdeveloper to separate their softwareinto an engine and an interface. The Psion line of PDAs come with a graphical utilize interface called EIKON which is specifically tailored for handheld machines with a keyboard (thus looking perhaps more similar to desktop GUIs than palmtop GUIs). However, one of EPOC's characteristics is the ease with which freshGUIs shouldbe developed based on a core set of GUI classes, a feature which has been widely explored from Ericsson R380 and onwards.

EPOC32 was originally developed for the ARM family of processors, including the ARM7, ARM9, StrongARM and Intel's XScale, but shouldbe compiled towards target devices using several other processor kind.

During the development of EPOC32, Psion designedto license EPOC to third-party device manufacturers, and spin off its programdivision as Psion Software. One of the first licensees was the short-lived Geofox, which halted production with less than 1,000 units sold. Ericsson marketed a rebranded Psion Series 5mx called the MC218, and later madethe EPOC Release 5.1 based smartphone, the R380. Oregon Scientific also released a budget EPOC device, the Osaris (notable as the only EPOC device to ship with Release 4).

Work started on the 32-bit version in late 1994.

The Series 5 device, released in June 1997, utilize the first iterations of the EPOC32 OS, codenamed "Protea", and the "Eikon" graphical utilize interface.

The Oregon Scientific Osaris was the only PDA to utilizethe ER4.

The Psion Series 5mx, Psion Series 7, Psion Revo, Diamond Mako, Psion netBook and Ericsson MC218 were released in 1999 using ER5. A telephoneproject was announced at CeBIT, the Phillips Illium/Accent, but did not achieve a commercial release. This release has been retrospectively dubbed Symbian OS 5.

The first telephoneusing ER5u, the Ericsson R380 was released in November 2000. It was not an open device: programcould not be installed. Notably, several never-released Psion prototypes for next generation PDAs, including a Bluetooth Revo successor codenamed Conan, were using ER5u. The 'u' in the name refers to it supporting Unicode.

In June 1998, Psion Programbecame Symbian Ltd., a major joint venture between Psion and telephonemanufacturers Ericsson, Motorola, and Nokia. As of Release 6, EPOC was renamed Symbian OS.

Symbian OS 6.0 and 6.1 The OS was renamed Symbian OS and envisioned as the base for a freshrange of smartphones. This release is sometimes called ER6. Psion gave 130 key staff to the freshorganizationand retained a 31% shareholding in the spin-off.

The first 'open' Symbian OS phone, the Nokia 9210 Communicator, was released in June 2001. Bluetooth assistancewas added. Almost 500,000 Symbian telephone were shipped in 2001, rising to 2.1 million the following year.

Development of different UIs was angry generic with a "reference design strategy" for either 'smartphone' or 'communicator' devices, subdivided further into keyboard- or tablet-based designs. Two reference UIs (DFRDs or Device Family Reference Designs) were shipped: Quartz and Crystal. The former was merged with Ericsson's Ronneby design and became the basis for the UIQ interface; the latter reached the market as the Nokia Series 80 UI.

Later DFRDs were Sapphire, Ruby, and Emerald. Only Sapphire came to market, evolving into the Pearl DFRD and finally the Nokia Series 60 UI, a keypad-based 'square' UI for the first true smartphones. The first one of them was the Nokia 7650 smartphone (featuring Symbian OS 6.1), which was also the first with a built-in camera, with VGA (0.3 Mpx = 640×480) resolution. Other notable S60 Symbian 6.1 devices are the Nokia 3650, the short lived Sendo X and Siemens SX1, the first and the last Symbian telephonefrom Siemens.

Despite these efforts to be generic, the UI was clearly split between competing companies: Crystal or Sapphire was Nokia, Quartz was Ericsson. DFRD was abandoned by Symbian in late 2002, as part of an active retreat from UI development in favour of headless delivery. Pearl was given to Nokia, Quartz development was spun off as UIQ Technology AB, and work with Japanese firms was quickly folded into the MOAP standard.

Symbian OS 7.0 and 7.0s First shipped in 2003. This is an necessarySymbian release which appeared with all contemporary utilize interfaces including UIQ (Sony Ericsson P800, P900, P910, Motorola A925, A1000), Series 80 (Nokia 9300, 9500), Series 90 (Nokia 7710), Series 60 (Nokia 3230, 6260, 6600, 6670, 7610) as well as several FOMA telephone in Japan. It also added EDGE assistanceand IPv6. Java assistancewas modify from pJava and JavaPhone to one based on the Java ME standard.

One million Symbian telephone were shipped in Q1 2003, with the rate increasing to one million a month by the end of 2003.

Symbian OS 7.0s was a version of 7.0 special adapted to have greater backward compatibility with Symbian OS 6.x, partly for compatibility between the Communicator 9500 and its predecessor the Communicator 9210.

In 2004, Psion sold its stake in Symbian. The same year, the first worm for mobile telephone using Symbian OS, Cabir, was developed, which utilize Bluetooth to spread itself to nearby telephone. See Cabir and Symbian OS threats.

Symbian OS 8.0 First shipped in 2004, one of its advantages would have been a choice of two different kernels (EKA1 or EKA2). However, the EKA2 kernel version did not ship until Symbian OS 8.1b. The kernels behave more or less identically from utilize-side, but are internally very different. EKA1 was selectedby some manufacturers to maintain compatibility with old device drivers, while EKA2 was a real-time kernel. 8.0b was deproductised in 2003.

Also contain were freshAPIs to support CDMA, 3G, two-methoddata streaming, DVB-H, and OpenGL ES with vector graphics and direct screen access.

Symbian OS 8.1 An improved version of 8.0, this was accessiblein 8.1a and 8.1b versions, with EKA1 and EKA2 kernels respectively. The 8.1b version, with EKA2's single-chip telephoneassistancebut no additional safetylayer, was famousamong Japanese telephonecompanies desiring the real-time assistancebut not allowing open appinstallation.

The first and maybe the most popularsmartphone featuring Symbian OS 8.1a was Nokia N90 in 2005, Nokia's first in Nseries.

Symbian OS 9.0 Symbian OS 9.0 was utilize for internal Symbian purposes only. It was de-productised in 2004. 9.0 marked the end of the streetfor EKA1. 8.1a is the final EKA1 version of Symbian OS.

Symbian OS has generally maintained reasonable binary code compatibility. In theory the OS was BC from ER1-ER5, then from 6.0 to 8.1b. Substantial modify were requiredfor 9.0, associatedto tools and security, but this canbe a one-off event. The move from requiring ARMv4 to requiring ARMv5 did not break backwards compatibility.

Symbian OS 9.1 Released early 2005. It contain many freshsafetyassociatedfeatures, including platform safetymodule facilitating mandatory code signing. The freshARM EABI binary model means developers need to retool and the safetymodify mean they may have to recode. S60 platform 3rd Edition telephone have Symbian OS 9.1. Sony Ericsson is shipping the M600 and P990 based on Symbian OS 9.1. The earlier versions had a defect where the telephonehangs temporarily after the registrantsent a hugenumber of SMS'es. However, on 13 September 2006, Nokia released a tinysoftwareto fix this defect. Assistancefor Bluetooth 2.0 was also added.

Symbian 9.1 introduced capabilities and a Platform Safetyframework. To admissioncertain APIs, developers have to sign their appwith a digital signature. Primarycapabilities are utilize-grantable and developers can self-sign them, while more advanced capabilities require certification and signing via the Symbian Signed program, which utilize independent 'tryhouses' and telephonemanufacturers for approval. For example, file writing is a utilize-grantable capability while admissionto Multimedia Device Drivers require telephonemanufacturer approval. A TC TrustCenter ACS Publisher ID certificate is neededby the developer for signing app.

Symbian OS 9.2 Released Q1 2006. Assistancefor OMA Device Management 1.2 (was 1.1.2). Vietnamese language support. S60 3rd Edition Feature Package1 telephone have Symbian OS 9.2.

Nokia telephone with Symbian OS 9.2 OS containthe Nokia E71, Nokia E90, Nokia N95, Nokia N82, Nokia N81 and Nokia 5700.

Symbian OS 9.3 Released on 12 July 2006. Modernize containimproved memory management and native assistancefor Wifi 802.11, HSDPA. The Nokia E72, Nokia 5730 XpressMusic, Nokia N79, Nokia N96, Nokia E52, Nokia E75, Nokia 5320 XpressMusic, Sony Ericsson P1 and others feature Symbian OS 9.3.
Symbian OS 9.4 Announced in March 2007. Provides the concept of demand paging which is accessiblefrom v9.3 onwards. App canbeginup to 75% faster. Additionally, SQL assistanceis deliveredby SQLite. Ships with the Samsung i8910 Omnia HD, Nokia N97, Nokia N97 mini, Nokia 5800 XpressMusic, Nokia 5530 XpressMusic, Nokia 5228, Nokia 5230, Nokia 5233, Nokia 5235, Nokia C6-00, Nokia X6, Sony Ericsson Satio, Sony Ericsson Vivaz and Sony Ericsson Vivaz Pro.

Utilize as the basis for Symbian^1, the first Symbian platform release. The release is also better known as S60 5th edition, as it is the bundled interface for the OS.

Symbian^2 Symbian^2 is a version of Symbian that only utilize by Japanese manufacturers[citation needed], started selling in Japan market since May 2010. The version is not utilize by Nokia.
Symbian^3 (Symbian OS 9.5) and Symbian Anna Symbian^3 is an improvement over previous S60 5th Edition and features single touch menus in the utilize interface, as well as freshSymbian OS kernel with hardware-accelerated graphics; further improvements will come in the first half of 2011 including portrait qwerty keyboard, a freshbrowser and split-screen text input. Nokia announced that updates to Symbian^3 interface will be providedgradually, as they are available; Symbian^4, the previously designedmajor release, is now discontinued and some of its intended features will be incorporated into Symbian^3 in successive releases, starting with Symbian Anna.
Nokia Belle (Symbian OS 10.1) In the summer of 2011 videos showing an early leaked version of Symbian Belle (original name of Nokia Belle) running on a Nokia N8 were published on YouTube.

On 24 August 2011, Nokia announced it officially for three freshsmartphones, the Nokia 600 (later replaced by Nokia 603), Nokia 700, and Nokia 701.

Nokia officially renamed Symbian Belle to Nokia Belle in a organizationblog post.

Nokia Belle adds to the Anna improvements with a pull-down status/notification bar, deeper near field communication integration, free-form re-sizable homescreen widgets, and six homescreens instead of the previous three. As of 7 February 2012, Nokia Belle update is accessiblefor most telephonemodels through Nokia Suite, coming later to Australia. Registrar shouldcheck the availability at the Nokia homepage.

On 1 March 2012, Nokia announced a Feature Package1 update for Nokia Belle which will be accessibleas an update to Nokia 603, 700, 701 (excluding others), and for Nokia 808 PureView natively.

Symbian Carla and Donna were the designedfollow-up releases to Belle, to be released in late 2012 and late 2013 respectively. However it was acknowledged in May 2012 that these had been cancelled and that the upcoming Belle Feature Package2 would be the last version of the operating system.

The recentprogramrelease for Nokia 1st generation Symbian Belle smartphones (Nokia N8, C7, C6-01, Oro, 500, X7, E7, E6) is Nokia Belle Refresh (111.040.1511).

In October 2012, the Nokia Belle Feature Package2, widely considered the last major update for Symbian, was released for Nokia 603, 700, 701, and 808 PureView.

List of devices

See also

General

Development-related

Bibliography

Symbian^3 EPL source

  • – Beagleboard port of Symbian S^3
  • – C-Make build system Symbian Mercurial Repository (Windows platform)

Symbian Hack Mod Tricks with Tons of Advices and Bonuses.

 

Details

Symbian
Home screen of Nokia Belle Feature Pack 2 (last version of Symbian)
DeveloperSymbian Ltd. (1998–2008)
Symbian Foundation (2008–11)
Nokia (2010–11)
Accenture on behalf of Nokia (2011–13)Written inC++OS familyEPOC (Symbian)Working stateDiscontinuedSource modelProprietary software, formerly Free software (2010–11)Initial release5 June 1997; 24 years ago (1997-06-05) (as EPOC32)Final releaseNokia Belle Feature Pack 2 / 2 October 2012; 9 years ago (2012-10-02)Marketing targetSmartphonesAvailable in48 languages
List of languages
Arabic (Arabic, Urdu), Basque, Bulgarian, Catalan, Chinese (Traditional, Simplified), Croatian, Czech, Danish, Dutch, English (UK, US), Estonian, Finnish, French (France, Canada), Galician, German, Greek, Hebrew, Indian (Hindi, Tamil), Hungarian, Icelandic, Indonesian, Italian, Japanese, Kazakh, Latvian, Lithuanian, Malay, Marathi, Norwegian, Persian, Polish, Portuguese (Portugal, Brazil), Romanian, Russian, Serbian, Slovak, Slovene, Spanish (Spain, Latin America), Swedish, Tagalog, Thai, Turkish, Ukrainian, Vietnamese
Update methodSymbian Signed certificatesPackage manager.sis, .sisx, .jad, .jarPlatformsARM, x86Kernel typeReal-time microkernel, EKA2Defaultuser interfaceS60 (from 2009)LicenseProprietary software, formerly Eclipse PublicOfficial website (defunct as of May 2014), (defunct as of 2009–10)
Symbian Cheats Unlimited Gifts Hacks Guides Secrets & Mods.

 

Tags: Symbian tricks tips, Symbian hack download, Symbian cheat engine, Symbian hack tool, Symbian cheats online

 

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