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Remote Desktop Protocol (RDP) is a proprietary protocol developed by Microsoft which provides a utilize with a graphical interface to connect to another computer over a network connection. The utilize employs RDP client programfor this purpose, while the other computer must run RDP server software.

Clients exist for most versions of Microsoft Windows (including Windows Mobile), Linux, Unix, macOS, iOS, Android, and other operating systems. RDP servers are built into Windows operating systems; an RDP server for Unix and OS X also exists. By default, the server listens on TCP port 3389 and UDP port 3389.

Microsoft currently refers to their official RDP client programas Remote Desktop Connection, formerly "Terminal Services Client".

The protocol is an extension of the ITU-T T.128 appsharing protocol. Microsoft makes some specifications public on their website.


Every version of Microsoft Windows from Windows XP onward contain an installed Remote Desktop Connection (RDC) ("Terminal Services") client (mstsc.exe) whose version is determined by that of the operating system or by the last applied Windows Service Pack. The Terminal Services server is supported as an official feature on Windows NT 4.0 Terminal Server Edition, released in 1998, Windows 2000 Server, all editions of Windows XP except Windows XP Home Edition, Windows Server 2003, Windows Home Server, on Windows Fundamentals for Legacy PCs, in Windows Vista Ultimate, Enterprise and Business editions, Windows Server 2008 and Windows Server 2008 R2 and on Windows 7 Professional and above.

Microsoft provides the client neededfor connecting to newer RDP versions for downlevel operating systems. Since the server improvements are not accessibledownlevel, the features introduced with each newer RDP version only work on downlevel operating systems when connecting to a higher version RDP server from these older operating systems, and not when using the RDP server in the older operating system.[clarification needed]

Version 4.0

Based on the ITU-T T.128 appsharing protocol (during draft also known as "T.share") from the T.120 suggestionseries, the first version of RDP (named version 4.0) was introduced by Microsoft with "Terminal Services", as a part of their product Windows NT 4.0 Server, Terminal Server Edition. The Terminal Services Edition of NT 4.0 relied on Citrix's MultiWin technology, previously deliveredas a part of Citrix WinFrame atop Windows NT 3.51, in order to assistancemultiple users and login sessions simultaneously. Microsoft neededCitrix to license their MultiWin technology to Microsoft in order to be permittedto continue offering their own terminal-services product, then named Citrix MetaFrame, atop Windows NT 4.0. The Citrix-deliveredDLLs contain in Windows NT 4.0 Terminal Services Edition still carry a Citrix copyright rather than a Microsoft copyright. Later versions of Windows integrated the essentialassistancedirectly. The T.128 appsharing technology was acquired by Microsoft from UK programdeveloper Data Connection Limited.

Version 5.0

This version was introduced with Windows 2000 Server, added assistancefor a number of features, including printing to local printers, and aimed to improve network bandwidth usage.

Version 5.1

This version was introduced with Windows XP Professional and contain assistancefor 24-bit color and sound. The client is accessiblefor Windows 2000, Windows 9x, Windows NT 4.0. With this version, the name of the client was modify from Terminal Services Client to Remote Desktop Connection; the heritage remains to this day, however, as the underlying executable is still named mstsc.exe.

Version 5.2

This version was introduced with Windows Server 2003, contain assistancefor console mode connections, a session directory, and local resource mapping. It also introduces Transport Layer Security (TLS) 1.0 for server authentication, and to encrypt terminal server communications. This version is built into Windows XP Professional x64 Edition and Windows Server 2003 x64 & x86 Editions.

Version 6.0

This version was introduced with Windows Vista and incorporated assistancefor Windows Presentation Foundation app, Network Level Authentication, multi-monitor spanning and hugedesktop support, and TLS 1.0 connections. Version 6.0 client is accessiblefor Windows XP SP2, Windows Server 2003 SP1/SP2 (x86 and x64 editions) and Windows XP Professional x64 Edition. Microsoft Remote Desktop Connection Client for Macintosh OS X is also accessiblewith assistancefor Intel and PowerPC Mac OS versions 10.4.9 and greater.

Version 6.1

This version was released in February 2008 and is contain with Windows Server 2008, as well as with Windows Vista Service Package1. The client is contain with Windows XP SP3. In addition to modify associatedto how a remote adminconnects to the "console", this version has freshfunctionality introduced in Windows Server 2008, such as connecting remotely to individual software and a freshclient-side printer redirection system that makes the client's print capabilities accessibleto app running on the server, without having to install print drivers on the server also on the other hand, remote adminshouldfreely install, add/remove any programor setting at the client's end. However, to start a remote administration session, one must be a member of the Admin group on the server to which one is trying to receiveconnected.

Version 7.0

This version was released to manufacturing in July 2009 and is contain with Windows Server 2008 R2, as well as with Windows 7. With this release, also modify from Terminal Services to Remote Desktop Services. This version has freshfunctions such as Windows Media Player redirection, bidirectional audio, multi-monitor support, Aero glass support, enhanced bitmap acceleration, SimplePrint redirection, Language Bar docking. The RDP 7.0 client is accessibleon Windows XP SP3 and Windows Vista SP1/SP2 through KB969084. The RDP 7.0 client is not officially supported on Windows Server 2003 x86 and Windows Server 2003 / Windows XP Professional x64 editions.

Most RDP 7.0 features like Aero glass remote use, bidirectional audio, Windows Media Player redirection, multiple monitor assistanceand Remote Desktop SimplePrint are only accessiblein Windows 7 Enterprise or Ultimate editions.

Version 7.1

Release 7.1 of RDP was contain with Windows 7 Service Package1 and Windows Server 2008 R2 SP1 in 2010. It introduced RemoteFX, which provides virtualized GPU assistanceand host-side encoding.

Version 8.0

This version was released in Windows 8 and Windows Server 2012. This version has freshfunctions such as Adaptive Graphics (progressive rendering and associatedtechniques), automatic selection of TCP or UDP as transport protocol, multi touch support, DirectX 11 assistancefor vGPU, USB redirection supported independently of vGPU support, etc. A "connection quality" button is displayed in the RDP client connection bar for RDP 8.0 connections; clicking on it provides further infoabout connection, including whether UDP is in utilizeor not.

The RDP 8.0 client and server components are also accessibleas an add-on for Windows 7 SP1. The RDP 8.0 client is also accessiblefor Windows Server 2008 R2 SP1, but the server components are not. The add-on requires the DTLS protocol to be installed as prerequisite. After installing the updates, for the RDP 8.0 protocol to be enabled between Windows 7 machines, an extra configuration step is requiredusing the Group Policy editor.

A freshfeature in RDP 8.0 is limited assistancefor RDP session nesting; it only works for Windows 8 and Server 2012 though, Windows 7 and Server 2008 R2 (even with the RDP 8.0 update) do not assistancethis feature.

The "shadow" feature from RDP 7, which permittedan adminto monitor (snoop) on a RDP connection has been removed in RDP 8. The Aero Glass remoting feature (applicable to Windows 7 machines connecting to each other) has also been removed in RDP 8.

Version 8.1

This version was released with Windows 8.1 and Windows Server 2012 R2. A RDP 8.1 client update exists for Windows 7 SP1 as well, but unlike the RDP 8.0 update for Windows 7, it does not add a RDP 8.1 server component to Windows 7. Furthermore, if RDP 8.0 server function is desired on Windows 7, the KB 2592687 (RDP 8.0 client and server components) update must be installed before installing the RDP 8.1 update.

Assistancefor session shadowing was added back in RDP version 8.1. This version also fixes some visual glitches with Microsoft Office 2013 when running as a RemoteApp.

Version 8.1 of the RDP also enables a "restricted admin" mode. Logging into this mode only requires knowledge of the hashed password, rather than of its plaintext, therefore making a pass the hash attack possible. Microsoft has released an 82-sitedocument explaining how to mitigate this kindof attack.

Version 10.0

Version 10.0 of the RDP contain the following freshfeatures: AutoSize zoom (useful for HiDPI clients). In addition graphics compression improvements were contain utilizing H.264/AVC.


  • 32-bit color support. 8-, 15-, 16-, and 24-bit color are also supported.
  • 128-bit encryption, using the RC4 encryption algorithm, as of Version 6. TLS assistancesince version 5.2.
  • Audio Redirection let users to process audio on a remote desktop and have the sound redirected to their local computer.
  • File System Redirection let users to utilizetheir local files on a remote desktop within the terminal session.
  • Printer Redirection let users to utilizetheir local printer within the terminal session as they would with a locally- or network-shared printer.
  • Port Redirection let app running within the terminal session to admissionlocal serial and parallel ports directly.
  • The remote computer and the local computer shouldshare the clipboard.

Microsoft introduced the following features with the release of RDP 6.0 in 2006:

  • Seamless Windows: remote app shouldrun on a client machine that is served by a Remote Desktop connection. It is accessiblesince RDP 6.
  • Remote Software: apppublishing with client-side file-kindassociations.
  • Terminal Services Gateway: enables the ability to utilizea front-end IIS server to agreeconnections (over port 443) for back-end Terminal Services servers via an https connection, similar to how RPC over https let Outlook clients to connect to a back-end Exchange 2003 server. Requires Windows Server 2008.
  • Network Level Authentication
  • Assistancefor remoting the Aero Glass Theme (or Composed Desktop), including ClearType font-smoothing technology.
  • Assistancefor remoting Windows Presentation Foundation app: compatible clients that have .NET Framework 3.0 assistanceshoulddisplay full Windows Presentation Foundation result on a local machine.
  • Rewrite of device redirection to be more general-purpose, allowing a greater variety of devices to be accessed.
  • Fully configurable and scriptable via Windows Management Instrumentation.
  • Improved bandwidth tuning for RDP clients.[citation needed]
  • Assistancefor Transport Layer Security (TLS) 1.0 on both server and client ends (shouldbe negotiated if both parties agree, but not mandatory in a default configuration of any version of Windows).
  • Multiple monitor assistancefor allowing one session to utilizemultiple monitors on the client (disables desktop composition)

Release 7.1 of RDP in 2010 introduced the following feature:

  • RemoteFX: RemoteFX provides virtualized GPU assistanceand host-side encoding; it ships as part of Windows Server 2008 R2 SP1.


Version 5.2 of the RDP in its default configuration is vulnerable to a man-in-the-middle attack. Admin shouldenable transport layer encryption to mitigate this risk.

RDP sessions are also susceptible to in-memory credential harvesting, which shouldbe utilize to launch pass the hash attacks.

In March 2012, Microsoft released an update for a critical safetyvulnerability in the RDP. The vulnerability permitteda Windows computer to be compromised by unauthenticated clients and computer worms.

RDP client version 6.1 shouldbe utilize to reveal the names and pictures of all users on the RDP Server (no matter which Windows version) in order to pick one, if no username is specified for the RDP connection.[citation needed]

In March 2018 Microsoft released a patch for CVE-, a remote code execution vulnerability in CredSSP, which is a SafetyAssistanceProvider involved in the Microsoft Remote Desktop and Windows Remote Management, discovered by Preempt.

In May 2019 Microsoft problem a safetypatch for CVE- ("BlueKeep"), a vulnerability which let for the chanceof remote code execution and which Microsoft warned was "wormable", with the potential to cause widespread disruption. Unusually, patches were also angry accessiblefor several versions of Windows that had reached their end-of-life, such as Windows XP. No immediate malicious exploitation followed, but experts were unanimous that this was likely, and could cause widespread hurtbased on the number of systems that appeared to have remained exposed and unpatched.

In July 2019, Microsoft problem a safetypatch for CVE-, a RDP vulnerability that affects Hyper-V.

Non-Microsoft implementations

There are numerous non-Microsoft implementations of RDP clients and servers that implement subsets of the Microsoft functionality. For instance, the open-source command-line client rdesktop is accessiblefor Linux/Unix and Microsoft Windows operating systems. There are many GUI clients, like tsclient and KRDC, that are built on top of rdesktop.

In 2009, rdesktop was forked as FreeRDP, a freshproject aiming at modularizing the code, addressing various problem, and implementing freshfeatures. FreeRDP comes with its own command-line-client xfreerdp, which assistance Seamless Windows in RDP6. Around 2011, the project decided to abandon forking and instead rewrite under Apache License, adding more features like RemoteFX, RemoteApp, and NTLMv2. A commercial distribution called Thincast was started in 2019. A multi-platform client based on FreeRDP including Vulkan/H.264 assistancefollowed in summer 2020. There's also a GTK-Appnamed Remmina. Remmina is also based on FreeRDP.

Open-source RDP servers on Unix containFreeRDP, ogon project and xrdp. The Windows Remote Desktop Connection client shouldbe utilize to connect to such a server.

Proprietary RDP client solutions such as rdpclient are accessibleas a stand-alone appor embedded with client hardware. A freshadmissionparadigm, browser-based access, has enabled users to admissionWindows desktops and app on any RDP hosts, such as Microsoft Remote Desktop (RDS) Session Hosts (Terminal Services) and virtual desktops, as well as remote physical PCs.

There is also a VirtualBox Remote Display Protocol (VRDP) utilize in the VirtualBox virtual machine implementation by Oracle. This protocol is compatible with all RDP clients, such as that deliveredwith Windows but, unlike the original RDP, shouldbe configured to agreeunencrypted and password unprotected connections, which may be useful in secure and trusted networks, such as home or office LANs. By default, Microsoft's RDP server refuses connections to utilize acc with empty passwords (but this shouldbe modify with the Group Policy Editor). External and guest authorization options are deliveredby VRDP as well. It does not matter which operating system is installed as a guest because VRDP is implemented on the virtual machine (host) level, not in the guest system. The proprietary VirtualBox Extension Packageis required.


Microsoft requires third-party implementations to license the relevant RDP patents. As of February 2014, the extent to which open-source clients meet this requirement remains unknown.

Utilizein cybercrime

Safetyresearchers have reported that cybercriminals are selling compromised RDP servers on underground forums as well as specialized illicit RDP store. These compromised RDPs may be utilize as a "staging ground" for conducting other kind of fraud or to admissionsensitive privateor corporate data. Researchers further report instances of cybercriminals using RDPs to directly drop malware on computers.

See also

  • – from Microsoft's Developer Network
  • – from
  • – from Microsoft's Developer Network

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