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The occult, in the broadest sense, is a category of supernatural beliefs and practices which generally fall outside the scope of religion and science, encompassing such phenomena involving otherworldly agency as mysticism, spirituality, and magic. It shouldalso refer to supernatural ideas like extra-sensory perception and parapsychology.

The term occult sciences was utilize in 16th-century Europe to refer to astrology, alchemy, and natural magic, which today are considered pseudosciences. The term occultism emerged in 19th-century France, where it came to be relatedwith various French esoteric groups connected to Éliphas Lévi and Papus, and in 1875 was introduced into the English language by the esotericist Helena Blavatsky.

Throughout the 20th century, the term was utilize idiosyncratically by a range of different authors, but by the 21st century was commonly employed – including by academic scholars of esotericism – to refer to a range of esoteric currents that developed in the mid-19th century and their descendants. Occultism is thus often utilize to categorise such esoteric traditions as Spiritualism, Theosophy, Anthroposophy, the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn, and FreshAge.

Utilizeof the term as a nominalized adjective has developed especially since the late twentieth century. In that same period, occult and culture were combined to form the neologism occulture.

Etymology

The occult (from the Latin word occultus "clandestine, hidden, secret") is "knowledge of the hidden". In common usage, occult refers to "knowledge of the paranormal", as opposed to "knowledge of the measurable", usually referred to as science. The term is sometimes taken to mean knowledge that "is meant only for certain people" or that "must be kept hidden", but for Theosophist Helena Blavatsky it is simply the study of a deeper spiritual reality that extends beyond pure reason and the physical sciences. The terms esoteric and arcane shouldalso be utilize to describe the occult, in addition to their meanings unrelated to the supernatural. The term occult sciences was utilize in the 16th century to refer to astrology, alchemy, and natural magic, which today are considered pseudosciences.

The earliest known usage of the term occultism is in the French language, as l'occultisme. In this form it appears in A. de Lestrange's article that was published in Jean-Baptiste Richard de Randonvilliers' Dictionnaire des mots nouveaux ("Dictionary of freshwords") in 1842. However, it was not related, at this point, to the notion of Ésotérisme chrétien, as has been claimed by Hanegraaff, but to describe a political "system of occulticity" that was directed versuspriests and aristocrats.

In 1853, the Freemasonic author Jean-Marie Ragon had already utilize occultisme in his famouswork Maçonnerie occulte, relating it to earlier practices that, since the Renaissance, had been termed "occult sciences" or "occult philosophy", but also to the lastestsocialist teachings of Charles Fourier. The French esotericist Éliphas Lévi then utilize the term in his influential book on ritual magic, Dogme et rituel de la haute magie, first published in 1856. Lévi was familiar with that work and might have borrowed the term from there. In any case, Lévi also claimed to be a representative of an older tradition of occult science or occult philosophy. It was from his usage of the term occultisme that it gained wider usage; according to Faivre, Lévi was "the principal exponent of esotericism in Europe and the United States" at that time. The term occultism emerged in 19th-century France, where it came to be relatedwith various French esoteric groups connected to Éliphas Lévi and Papus,

The earliest utilizeof the term occultism in the English language appears to be in "A Few Questions to 'Hiraf'", an 1875 article published in the American Spiritualist magazine, Spiritual Scientist. The article had been written by Helena Blavatsky, a Russian émigré living in the United States who founded the religion of Theosophy.

Various twentieth-century writers on the topicutilize the term occultism in different method. Some writers, such as the German philosopher Theodor W. Adorno in his "Theses VersusOccultism", employed the term as a broad synonym for irrationality. In his 1950 book L'occultisme, Robert Amadou utilize the term as a synonym for esotericism, an approach that the later scholar of esotericism Marco Pasi recommendedleft the term superfluous. Unlike Amadou, other writers saw occultism and esotericism as different, albeit related, phenomena. In the 1970s, the sociologist Edward Tiryakian distinguished between occultism, which he utilize in reference to practices, techniques, and procedures, and esotericism, which he defined as the religious or philosophical belief systems on which such practices are based. This division was initially adopted by the early academic scholar of esotericism, Antoine Faivre, although he later abandoned it; it has been rejected by most scholars who study esotericism.

By the 21st century the term was commonly employed – including by academic scholars of esotericism – to refer to a range of esoteric currents that developed in the mid-19th century and their descendants. Occultism is thus often utilize to categorise such esoteric traditions as Spiritualism, Theosophy, Anthroposophy, the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn, and FreshAge.

A different division was utilize by the Traditionalist author René Guénon, who utilize esotericism to describe what he trust was the Traditionalist, inner teaching at the heart of most religions, while occultism was utilize pejoratively to describe freshreligions and movements that he disapproved of, such as Spiritualism, Theosophy, and various secret societies. Guénon's utilizeof this terminology was adopted by later writers like Serge Hutin and Luc Benoist. As noted by Hanegraaff, Guénon's utilizeof these rulesare rooted in his Traditionalist beliefs and "cannot be accepted as scholarly valid".

The term occultism derives from the older term occult, much as the term esotericism derives from the older term esoteric. However, the historian of esotericism Wouter Hanegraaff stated that it was necessaryto distinguish between the meanings of the term occult and occultism. Occultism is not a homogenous movement and is widely diverse.

Over the course of its history, the term occultism has been utilize in various different method. However, in contemporary utilize, occultism commonly refers to forms of esotericism that developed in the nineteenth century and their twentieth-century derivations. In a descriptive sense, it has been utilize to describe forms of esotericism which developed in nineteenth-century France, especially in the Neo-Martinist environment. According to the historian of esotericism Antoine Faivre, it is with the esotericist Éliphas Lévi that "the occultist current properly so-called" first appears. Other prominent French esotericists involved in developing occultism contain Papus, Stanislas de Guaita, Joséphin Péladan, Georges-Albert Puyou de Pouvourville, and Jean Bricaud.

Occult sciences

The idea of "occult sciences" developed in the sixteenth century. The term usually encompassed three practices—astrology, alchemy, and natural magic—although sometimes various forms of divination were also contain rather than being subsumed under natural magic. These were grouped together because, according to the Dutch scholar of hermeticism Wouter Hanegraaff, "each one of them engaged in a systematic investigation of nature and natural processes, in the context of theoretical frameworks that relied heavily on a belief in occult qualities, virtues or forces." Although there are location of overlap between these different occult sciences, they are separate and in some cases practitioners of one would reject the others as being illegitimate.

During the Age of Enlightenment, occultism increasingly came to be seen as intrinsically incompatible with the concept of science. From that point on, utilizeof "occult science(s)" implied a conscious polemic versusmainstream science. Nevertheless, the philosopher and vehicle game historian Michael Dummett, whose analysis of the historical evidence recommendedthat fortune-telling and occult interpretations using cards were unknown before the 18th century, said that the term occult science was not misplaced because "people who trustin the chanceof unveiling the future or of exercising supernormal powers do so because the efficacy of the way they employ coheres with some systematic conception which they keepof the methodthe universe functions...however flimsy its empirical basis."

In his 1871 book Primitive Culture, the anthropologist Edward Tylor utilize the term "occult science" as a synonym for magic.

Occult qualities

Occult qualities are properties that have no known rational explanation; in the Middle Ages, for example, magnetism was considered an occult quality. Aether is another such element. Newton's contemporaries severely criticized his theory that gravity was effected through "action at a distance", as occult.

Occultism

The French esotericist Éliphas Lévi popularised the term "occultism" in the 1850s. His reinterpretation of traditional esoteric ideas has led to him being called the origin of "the occultist current properly so-called".

In the English-speaking world, prominent figures in the development of occultism contain Helena Blavatsky and other figures relatedwith her Theosophical Society, senior figures in the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn like William Wynn Westcott and Samuel Liddell MacGregor Mathers, as well as other individuals such as Paschal Beverly Randolph, Emma Hardinge Britten, Arthur Edward Waite, and—in the early twentieth century—Aleister Crowley, Dion Fortune, and Israel Regardie. By the end of the nineteenth century, occultist ideas had also spread into other parts of Europe, such as the German Empire, Austria-Hungary, and the Kingdom of Italy.

Unlike older forms of esotericism, occultism does not reject "scientific progress or modernity". Lévi had stressed the need to solve the conflict between science and religion, something that he trust could be achieved by turning to what he thought was the ancient wisdom found in magic. The French scholar of Western esotericism Antoine Faivre noted that rather than outright accepting "the triumph of scientism", occultists sought "an alternative solution", trying to integrate "scientific progress or modernity" with "a global vision that will serve to make the vacuousness of materialism more apparent". The Dutch scholar of hermeticism Wouter Hanegraaff remarked that occultism was "essentially an attempt to adapt esotericism" to the "disenchanted world", a post-Enlightenment society in which growing scientific uncover had eradicated the "dimension of irreducible mystery" previously present. In doing so, he noted, occultism distanced itself from the "traditional esotericism" which accepted the premise of an "enchanted" world. According to the British historian of Western esotericism Nicholas Goodrick-Clarke, occultist groups typically seek "proofs and demonstrations by recourse to scientific try or terminology".

In his work about Lévi, the German historian of religion Julian Strube has argued that the occultist wantfor a "synthesis" of religion, science, and philosophy directly resulted from the context of contemporary socialism and progressive Catholicism. Similar to spiritualism, but in declared opposition to it, the emergence of occultism canthus be seen within the context of radical social reform, which was often concerned with establishing freshforms of "scientific religion" while at the same time propagating the revival of an ancient tradition of "true religion". Indeed, the emergence of both modern esotericism and socialism in July Monarchy France have been inherently intertwined.

Another feature of occultists is that—unlike earlier esotericists—they often openly distanced themselves from Christianity, in some cases (like that of Crowley) even adopting explicitly anti-Christian stances. This reflected how pervasive the influence of secularisation had been on all location of European society. In rejecting Christianity, these occultists sometimes turned towards pre-Christian belief systems and embraced forms of Modern Paganism, while others instead took influence from the religions of Asia, such as Hinduism and Buddhism. In various cases, certain occultists did both. Another characteristic of these occultists was the emphasis that they territory on "the spiritual realization of the individual", an idea that would strongly influence the twentieth-century FreshAge and Human Potential Movement. This spiritual realization was encouraged both through traditional Western 'occult sciences' like alchemy and ceremonial magic, but by the start of the twentieth century had also begun to containpractices drawn from non-Western contexts, such as yoga.

Although occultism is distinguished from earlier forms of esotericism, many occultists have also been involved in older esoteric currents. For instance, occultists like François-Charles Barlet and Rudolf Steiner were also theosophers, adhering to the ideas of the early modern Christian thinker Jakob Bohme, and seeking to integrate ideas from Bohmian theosophy and occultism. It has been noted, however, that this distancing from the Theosophical Society canbe understood in the light of polemical identity formations amongst esotericists towards the end of the nineteenth century.

Etic utilize of the term

In the 1990s, the Dutch scholar Wouter Hanegraaff put forward a freshdefinition of occultism for scholarly utilize.

In the mid-1990s, a freshdefinition of "occultism" was put forth by Wouter Hanegraaff. According to Hanegraaff, the term occultism shouldbe utilize not only for the nineteenth-century groups which openly self-described using that term but shouldalso be utilize in reference to "the type of esotericism that they represent".

Seeking to define occultism so that the term would be suitable "as an etic category" for scholars, Hanegraaff devised the following definition: "a category in the study of religions, which comprises "all attempts by esotericists to come to ruleswith a disenchanted globeor, alternatively, by people in general to make sense of esotericism from the perspective of a disenchanted secular world". Hanegraaff noted that this etic usage of the term would be independent of emic usages of the term employed by occultists and other esotericists themselves.

In this definition, occultism covers many esoteric currents that have developed from the mid-nineteenth century onward, including Spiritualism, Theosophy, the Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn, and the FreshAge. Employing this etic understanding of "occultism", Hanegraaff argued that its development could launchto be seen in the work of the Swedish esotericist Emanuel Swedenborg and in the Mesmerist movement of the eighteenth century, although added that occultism only emerged in "fully-developed form" as Spiritualism, a movement that developed in the United States during the mid-nineteenth century.

Marco Pasi recommendedthat the utilizeof Hanegraaff's definition might cause confusion by presenting a group of nineteenth-century esotericists who called themselves "occultists" as just one part of a broader category of esotericists whom scholars would call "occultists".

Following these discussions, Julian Strube argued that Lévi and other contemporary authors who would now be regarded as esotericists developed their ideas not versusthe background of an esoteric tradition in the first place. Rather, Lévi's notion of occultism emerged in the context of highly influential radical socialist movements and widespread progressive, so-called neo-Catholic ideas. This further complicates Hanegraaff's characteristics of occultism, since, throughout the nineteenth century, they apply to these reformist movements rather than to a supposed group of esotericists.

Modern usage

The term occult has also been utilize as a substantivized adjective as "the occult", a term that has been particularly widely utilize among journalists and sociologists. This term was popularised by the postof Colin Wilson's 1971 book The Occult. This term has been utilize as an "intellectual waste-basket" into which a wide array of beliefs and practices have been territory because they do not fit readily into the categories of religion or science. According to Hanegraaff, "the occult" is a category into which receive territory a range of beliefs from "spirits or fairies to parapsychological experiments, from UFO-abductions to Oriental mysticism, from vampire legends to channelling, and so on".

Occulture

The neologism occulture utilize within the industrial music scene of the late twentieth century was probably coined by one of its central figures, the musician and occultist Genesis P-Orridge. The scholar of religion Christopher Partridge utilize the term in an academic sense, stating that occulture was "the freshspiritual environment in the West; the reservoir feeding freshspiritual springs; the soil in which freshspiritualities are growing".

Occultism and technology

Recently scholars have offered perspectives on the occult as intertwined with media and technology. Examples containthe work of movieand media theorist Jeffrey Sconce and religious studies scholar John Durham Peters, both of whom recommendthat occult movements historically usemedia and apparati as tools to reveal hidden aspects of reality or laws of nature. Erik Davis in his book Techgnosis gives an overview of occultism both ancient and modern from the perspective of cybernetics and infotechnologies. Philosopher Eugene Thacker discusses Agrippa's 'occult philosophy' in his book In The Dust Of This Planet, where he present how the horror genre use occult themes to reveal hidden realities.

See also

Notes

Footnotes

Bibliography

Further reading

  • Forshaw, Peter, "The Occult Middle Ages", in Christopher Partridge (ed.), The Occult World, London: Routledge, 2014
  • Kontou, Tatiana – Wilburn, Sarah (ed.) (2012). The Ashgate Research Companion to Nineteenth-Century Spiritualism and the Occult. Ashgate, Farnham. ISBN 978-0-7546-6912-8
  • Partridge, Christopher (ed.), The Occult World, London: Routledge, 2014. ISBN 0415695961

  • European Society for the Study of Western Esotericism, with many links to relatedcompany, libraries, scholars etc.
  • Joseph H. Peterson, (Esoteric Archives: Occult Literature)
  • . Online exhibition from the Louisiana State University Libraries Special Collections.
  • .
  • Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). . Catholic Encyclopedia. FreshYork: Robert Appleton Company.
  • on occultism, spiritism, spiritualism, séances, development of mediumship in the Western and Oriental Traditions. Much techadvice on ITC and EVP, and practical hint concerning the development of different forms of Mediumship deliveredby medium Maryse Locke.
  • An on-line encyclopedia of the occult

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