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About

The Macau pataca or Macanese pataca (Chinese: 澳門圓; Jyutping: ou3 mun4 jyun4; Portuguese: pataca de Macau; sign: MOP$; code: MOP) is the currency of the Macau Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China. It is subdivided into 100 avos (; sin), with 10 avos called ho () in Cantonese. The abbreviation MOP$ is commonly utilize.

Macau has a currency board system under which the legal tender, Macau pataca, is 100 percent backed by foreign exchange reserves, in this case currently the Hong Kong dollar (itself backed by the United States dollar). Moreover, the currency board, Monetary Authority of Macau (AMCM), has a statutory obligation to problemand redeem Macau pataca on demand versusthe Hong Kong dollar at a fixed exchange rate of HK$1 = MOP$1.03, and without limit.

History

The Spanish American silver dollar was in wide utilizein Asia and the Americas between the 16th to 20th centuries, and was imported by China in hugequantities. They were typically minted in Mexico and then brought to the Philippines as part of the Spanish East Indies through the Manila-Acapulco Galleon Trade to be traded and circulated across the Far East. It was known to the Portuguese as the pataca mexicana. At the end of the 19th century various versions of this silver dollar or pataca were in utilizein Macau, in the form of Spanish dollars, the British trade dollars of Hong Kong and the Straits Settlements, as well as the silver dollars and fractional coinage of the neighbouring province of Canton.

In 1894 the pataca was introduced as a unit of accin Portuguese Macau and Portuguese Timor at a rate of 1 pataca = 450 réis, equivalent to the Mexican Peso or Philippine Peso. In 1901, it was decided to have a uniquely Macau currency, and for that purpose, the Banco Nacional Ultramarino was granted exclusive rights to problemlegal tender banknotes that were to be denominated in patacas. On January 27, 1906, pataca notes in denominations of 1, 5, 50 and 100 were introduced and all foreign coinage was outlawed, the idea being to make the pataca paper notes the sole legal tender currency in Macau. However, the Chinese, being so accustomed to using silver for barter, were suspicious of this freshpaper money, and as such, the paper pataca always circulated at a discount in relation to the silver dollar coins. On the contrary, a similar action at exactly the same time in the Straits Settlements, and for the same purpose, had the different resultof putting the new Straits dollar into the gold exchange standard. Hence both the Macau pataca and the Straits dollar were launched at a sterling value of 2 shillings and 4 pence, but where the Straits dollar remained at that value until the 1960s, the Macau pataca fluctuated with the value of silver, just like the Hong Kong unit.

In 1935, when Hong Kong and China abandoned the silver standard, the Hong Kong unit was pegged to sterling at a rate of 1 shilling and 3 pence, while the Macau pataca was pegged to the Portuguese escudo at a rate of 5.5 escudos. This meant that the Macau pataca was worth only 1 shilling sterling and was therefore at a discount of 3 pence sterling in relation to the Hong Kong unit.

The first exclusively Macau coinage was not introduced until the year 1952, which happened to be the year after the last pataca fractional coins were minted for East Timor. In that year in Macau, denominations below 10 patacas were replaced by coins.

Pegs for the Macau pataca
Date established 1 pataca =
1894 1 Spanish/Mexican/Philippine peso
1935 5.5 Portuguese escudos
1949 5 Portuguese escudos
1967 4.75 Portuguese escudos
1973 5.015 Portuguese escudos
1 Hong Kong dollar =
1977 1.075 patacas
1978 1.0025 patacas
1979 1.0425 patacas
1983 1.03 patacas

In 1980, the Macau government set up the Issuing Institute of Macau (Instituto Emissor de Macau; abbr. as IEM), which was given the monopoly right to problempataca notes. The BNU became the IEM's agent bank and continued to problembanknotes. On agreement with the BNU on October 16, 1995, the Macau branch of Bank of China (中國銀行澳門分行) became the second note-issuing bank. The authority to problempatacas was transferred to the Monetary Authority of Macau.

Coins

Coins were not problem for utilizein Macau until 1952, with the 20 cent coin of Canton Province circulating. In 1952, bronze 5 and 10 avos, cupro-nickel 50 avos and .720 fineness silver 1 and 5 patacas were introduced. Nickel-brass replaced bronze in 1967, including the last problemof 5 avos. Nickel replaced silver in the 1 pataca in 1968. In 1971, a final (.650 fineness) silver problemof 5 patacas was produced.

Brass 10, 20 and 50 avos and cupro-nickel 1 and 5 patacas were introduced in 1982. The 20 avos and 5 patacas became dodecagonal in 1993 and 1992, respectively, whilst a bimetallic 10 patacas was introduced in 1997 and a cupronickel 2 patacas in 1998. Coins are problem by the Monetary Authority of Macau.

Currently circulating coins
Image Value Description First Minted Year
Obverse Reverse Composition Obverse Reverse
10 avos Brass "Macau", "澳門" Value, Lion Dance Costume Head 1993
(missing photo) (missing photo) 20 avos Denomination, Dragon boat
50 avos Denomination, Dragon dance
MOP$1 Cupronickel Value, Guia Lighthouse 1992
(missing photo) (missing photo) MOP$2 Denomination, Templo de A-Má and Penha church 1998
MOP$5 Denomination, Cathedral of Saint Paul, Chinese junk 1992
(missing photo) (missing photo) MOP$10 Ring: Brass
Center: Cupronickel
Value, St. Dominic’s Church of Macau 1997

Banknotes

Both sides of 100 patacas problem by BNU on 1992-07-13

In a similar arrangement to the problemof banknotes in Hong Kong, Macau's banknotes are not problem by a central bank or monetary authority but by two commercial banks, the Banco Nacional Ultramarino and the Bank of China. Owing to Macau's Portuguese colonial past, banknotes are printed in Portuguese as well as Chinese, including the name of the Bank of China which is written as both "Banco da China" and "中國銀行".

Following the initial problemsof pataca banknotes in 1906, the freshcurrency was supplemented the following year by 10 and 25 pataca notes, and in February 1920, 5, 10 and 50 avo notes were added. In 1923, the Banco Vui Hang introduced 10 pataca notes which stated that they were backed by Cantonese 20 cent coins. These notes were followed until 1934 by cashier's cheques problem by various banks in denominations of 1, 5, 10, 50, 100, 200, 400, 800 and 1000 dollars, presumably equivalent to the pataca. The BNU problemswere augmented by 1 and 20 avo notes in 1942, and in 1944, 500 pataca notes were introduced. Also in 1944, further cashier's cheques were problem, denominated 1000 yuan and NC$5000. The 25 pataca note was discontinued after 1958.

On August 8, 1988, BNU problem a 1000 pataca banknote, the highest value banknote yet. Because 8 in Chinese (ba) is similar to "getting rich" (fa; ), this unique date, which occurs only once per century, gives the note a special meaning. Another feature is the replacement of the Coat of arms of Portugal with BNU's logo, shedding a political symbol in the prospect of reunification with China. In 1995, the Banco da China introduced notes in denominations of 10, 50, 100, 500 and 1000 patacas. Both the BNU and Banco da China introduced 20 pataca notes in 1996.

Current issue

Banknotes are currently problem in denominations of 10, 20, 50, 100, 500 and 1000 patacas. The current series of BNU banknotes was problem in 2005, while the Bank of China notes were last problem between 1995 and 2003. The dimensions of the banknotes are the same as that of Hong Kong banknotes worth the corresponding number of dollars. On December 20, 1999, the day Macau was retroceded to China, banknotes of all values (except for 10 patacas) by both banks were reissued with that date. On January 5, 2009, the Monetary Authority of Macau announced a freshseries of banknotes, dated 2008, released by the Bank of China.

Banco Nacional Ultramarino 1990 Series Banknote
Image Value Description Printed Date Watermark
Obverse Reverse Dimensions Color Obverse Reverse
MOP$10 138 × 69 mm Brown Sun Yat Sen Memorial House A view of Macau in the 1990s, Ponte Governador Nobre de Carvalho 8 July 1991 Chinese junk
MOP$10 Red, Violet 8 January 2001
8 June 2003
MOP$20 143 × 71.5 mm Violet Old BNU headquarters 1 September 1996
20 December 1999
8 June 2003
MOP$50 148 × 74 mm Yellow Lion dance 13 July 1992
20 December 1999
MOP$100 153 × 76.5 mm Blue Chinese junk 13 July 1992
20 December 1999
8 June 2003
MOP$500 158 × 79 mm Green, yellow and orange A-Ma Temple 3 September 1990
20 December 1999
8 June 2003
MOP$1000 163 × 81.5 mm Red Dragon 8 July 1991
20 December 1999
8 June 2003
Bank of China 1995 Series Banknote
Image Value Description Printed Date Watermark
Obverse Reverse Dimensions Color Obverse Reverse
MOP$10 138 × 69 mm Brown Lighthouse at Guia Fortress Bank of China, Macau branch 16 October 1995 Lotus
MOP$10 Red and orange 8 January 2001
2 February 2002
8 December 2003
MOP$20 143 × 71.5 mm Violet A-Ma Temple 1 September 1996
20 December 1999
8 December 2003
MOP$50 148 × 74 mm Yellow-grey University of Macau 16 October 1995
1 November 1997
20 December 1999
MOP$100 153 × 76.5 mm Blue Outer Harbour Ferry Terminal 16 October 1995
20 December 1999
2 February 2002
8 December 2003
MOP$500 158 × 79 mm Green Ponte de Amizade
MOP$1000 163 × 81.5 mm Orange Sai Van (Praia de Bom Porto) 16 October 1995
20 December 1999
8 December 2003
Banco Nacional Ultramarino 2005 Series Banknote
Image Value Description Printed Date Watermark
Obverse Reverse Dimensions Color Obverse Reverse
MOP$10 138 × 69 mm Red Statue of Mazu BNU building 8 August 2005
8 August 2010
11 November 2013
6 November 2017
Lotus
MOP$20 143 × 71.5 mm Violet Macau International Airport
MOP$50 148 x 74 mm Brown Sai Van Bridge 8 August 2009
11 November 2013
6 November 2017
MOP$100 153 × 76.5 mm Blue Largo do Senado (Senate Square) 8 August 2005
8 August 2010
11 November 2013
6 November 2017
MOP$500 158 × 79 mm Green Macau Tower
MOP$1000 163 × 81.5 mm Orange Macau Cultural Centre
Bank of China 2008 Series Banknote
Image Value Description Printed Date Watermark
Obverse Reverse Dimensions Color Obverse Reverse
MOP$10 138 × 69 mm Red A-Ma Temple Bank of China, Macau branch 8 August 2008
1 July 2013
6 November 2017
Lotus
MOP$20 143 × 71.5 mm Violet Façade of the ruins of Saint Paul's Cathedral
MOP$50 148 × 74 mm Brown Dom Pedro V Theatre
MOP$100 153 × 76.5 mm Blue Guia Lighthouse and Monte fort
MOP$500 158 × 79 mm Green Casa do Mandarim (House of the Mandarin)
MOP$1000 163 × 81.5 mm Orange Legislative Senate


Commemorative problem

In 2008, the Macau branch of the Bank of China problem four million 20 pataca banknotes in commemoration of the 29th Summer Olympic Games in Beijing.

In 2012, the Banco Nacional Ultramarino and Banco da China problem ten million 10 pataca banknotes to commemorate the Year of the Dragon, and from 2012–2023, the Banco National Ultramarino and the Banco da China are each authorized to problema maximum number of 20 million special notes with the face value of 10 patacas to mark each lunar freshyear. The Bank of China also problem a 100 pataca banknote to commemorate its centennial anniversary.

In commemoration of the 20th anniversary of the transfer of Macau to the People's Republic of China, the Banco Nacional Ultramarino and the Banco da China problem five million 20 patacas banknotes. The front side of the notes feature the 7-ton gilded bronze sculpture "Lotus Flower In Full Bloom", representing the prosperity of Macau. The back side of the notes feature the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge.

Historical exchange rate

Despite the fact that the pataca is the official currency of Macau, most of the cashin circulation in the Region is actually Hong Kong dollars. Patacas accounted for only 29.9% of Macau's cashsupply at the end of 1998. The exchange rate is pegged and is approximately MOP$1.03 for HK$1, and Hong Kong dollar banknotes and coins are generally accepted at par or MOP$1.00 for retail payments. For United States dollars, to which the Hong Kong dollar is in turn loosely pegged, the exchange rate is around 8 patacas to 1 US dollar. Although it is possible to exchange patacas in Macau, it is either difficult or impossible to do so elsewhere. The few territory in Hong Kong where patacas are accessibleare concentrated on Cleverly Street in Central, a short distance from the Hong Kong–Macau Ferry Terminal.

Although the pataca is the legal tender of Macau, the Hong Kong dollar is almost universally acceptable in the Region, and in some cases, is preferred to the Pataca. Circulation of the pataca is mandated by a decree (Decreto-Lei n.º 16/95/M) prohibiting refusal by merchants, but some casinos flout this rule and refuse bets in patacas. The Hong Kong dollar and Chinese yuan are generally accepted throughout Macau from casinos to restaurants. Payments to government agencies shouldalso be angry in both Hong Kong dollars and patacas.

As Macau currently imposes no restrictions on the import or export of local or foreign currency, visitors shouldmodifytheir currency in hotels, banks and bureaux de change located all around the townincluding 24 hour currency exchange booths at Macau International Airport (Taipa Island) and at the Lisboa Hotel (Macau Peninsula) for customers if they wishto modifytheir currency into patacas outside working hours.

MOP annual average middle exchange rate for major foreign currencies, from 2002 on
(1 foreign currency unit to MOP)
Year 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
Hong Kong dollar 1.03 1.03 1.03 1.03 1.03 1.03 1.03 1.03
Chinese yuan 0.9706 0.9691 0.9693 0.9778 1.0025 1.0560 1.1546 1.1688
United States dollar 8.0334 8.0214 8.0226 8.0109 8.0006 8.0360 8.0206 7.9842
British Pound 12.0766 13.1040 14.6911 14.5820 14.6993 16.0887 14.8965 12.5159
Taiwan dollar 0.2328 0.2332 0.2401 0.2494 0.2462 0.2447 0.2548 0.2418
Euro 7.5984 9.0696 9.9645 9.9721 10.0272 11.0049 11.8092 11.1309
Australian dollar 4.3703 5.2271 5.9021 6.1064 6.0169 6.7351 6.8552 6.3269
Korean won 0.0065 0.0067 0.0070 0.0078 0.0084 0.0087 0.0074 0.0063
Japanese yen 0.0643 0.0692 0.0742 0.0729 0.0689 0.0683 0.0776 0.0854
Malaysian ringgit 2.1141 2.1109 2.1112 2.1155 2.1797 2.3374 2.4124 2.2669
FreshZealand dollar 3.7306 4.6671 5.3214 5.6436 5.1889 5.9128 5.7341 5.0721
Singapore dollar 4.4893 4.6034 4.7452 4.8137 5.0294 5.3325 5.6788 5.4955
Swiss franc 5.1812 5.9632 6.4572 6.4424 6.3801 6.6998 7.4326 7.3721
MOP annual average middle exchange rate for major foreign currencies, 1990–2002
(1 foreign currency unit to MOP)
Year 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001
Hong Kong dollar 1.03 1.03 1.03 1.03 1.03 1.03 1.03 1.03 1.03 1.03 1.03 1.03
Portuguese escudo 0.0564 0.0555 0.0593 0.0497 0.0481 0.0532 0.0517 0.0456 0.0443 0.0425 0.0370 0.0359
German mark 4.9750 4.8362 5.1221 4.8199 4.9225 5.5677 5.2977 4.6049 4.5381 4.3601 3.7929 3.6794
French franc 1.4767 1.4222 1.5115 1.4076 1.4392 1.5988 1.5583 1.3679 1.3537 1.3000 1.1309 1.0971
United States dollar 8.0230 8.0041 7.9723 7.9679 7.9602 7.9679 7.9664 7.9749 7.9788 7.9918 8.0260 8.0335
British Pound 14.3239 14.1421 14.0998 11.9638 12.1982 12.5766 12.4392 13.0709 13.2203 12.9284 12.1663 11.5698
Chinese yuan 0.9620 0.9637 0.9654 0.9695 0.9706
Taiwan dollar 0.2788 0.2384 0.2477 0.2574 0.2379
Euro 9.0177 8.9532 8.5277 7.4183 7.1962
Australian dollar 5.9341 5.0203 5.1574 4.6739 4.1598
Korean won 0.0086 0.0057 0.0067 0.0071 0.0062
Japanese yen 0.0661 0.0611 0.0704 0.0745 0.0662
Malaysian ringgit 2.8954 2.0387 2.1031 2.1121 2.1141
FreshZealand dollar 5.2849 4.2816 4.2315 3.6684 3.3813
Singapore dollar 5.3851 4.7720 4.7160 4.6553 4.4867
Swiss franc 5.5020 5.5090 5.3278 4.7590 4.7638

See also

Citations

Sources

  • – a gallery of Macau banknote problemspast and present
  • (in Chinese) (in Portuguese and English)
  • (in Chinese) (in Portuguese and English)
  • (in Chinese) (in English)
  • (in Chinese) (in English)
  • (in English and German)
Preceded by:
Mexican dollar, Chinese dollar
Reason: creation of a local currency
Ratio: at par (with Mexican dollar)
Currency of Macau
1906 –
Note: the pataca was angry the unit of accin 1894
Succeeded by:
Current

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Details

Macanese pataca澳門圓 (Chinese)
pataca de Macau (Portuguese)ISO 4217CodeMOPNumber446Exponent2DenominationsSubunit110  (Chinese) (ho) dez avos (Portuguese)1100  (Chinese) (sin) avo (Portuguese)
(no longer in circulation)Pluralpatacas (Portuguese only)SymbolMOP$Banknotes Freq. usedMOP$10, MOP$20, MOP$50, MOP$100, MOP$500 Rarely usedMOP$1000Coins Freq. used10, 50 avos, MOP$1, MOP$5 Rarely used20 avos, MOP$2, MOP$10 (still minted)DemographicsUser(s) Macau (alongside Hong Kong Dollar)IssuanceMonetary authorityAutoridade Monetária de Macau WebsitePrinterIssuing banks:

Banco Nacional Ultramarino
Banco da China
Printer:

Hong Kong Note PrintingValuationInflation0.37% Source, February 2017Pegged withHong Kong dollar (HK$)
HK$1 = MOP$1.03
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