|Part of a series on|
macOS (/ˌmækoʊˈɛs/; previously Mac OS X and later OS X) is a proprietary graphical operating system developed and marketed by Apple Inc. since 2001. It is the basicoperating system for Apple's Mac computers. Within the market of desktop and laptop computers it is the second most widely utilize desktop OS, after Windows NT and ahead of Chrome OS.
macOS succeeded the classic Mac OS, a Macintosh operating system with nine releases from 1984 to 1999. During this time, Apple cofounder Steve Jobs had left Apple and started another company, NeXT, developing the NeXTSTEP platform that would later be acquired by Apple to form the basis of macOS.
The first desktop version, Mac OS X 10.0, was released in March 2001, with its first update, 10.1, arriving later that year. All releases from Mac OS X 10.5 Leopard and after are UNIX 03 certified, with an exception for OS X 10.7 Lion. Apple's mobile operating system, iOS, has been considered a variant of macOS.
A prominent part of macOS's original brand identity was the utilizeof Roman numeral X, pronounced "ten" as in Mac OS X and also the iPhone X, as well as code naming each release after species of giganticcats, or territory within California. Apple shortened the name to "OS X" in 2012 and then modify it to "macOS" in 2016 to align with the branding of Apple's other operating systems, iOS, watchOS, and tvOS. After sixteen distinct versions of macOS 10, macOS GiganticSur was presented as version 11 in 2020, and macOS Monterey was presented as version 12 in 2021.
macOS has supported three major processor architectures, beginning with PowerPC-based Macs in 1999. In 2006, Apple transitioned to the Intel architecture with a line of Macs using Intel Core processors. In 2020, Apple began the Apple silicon transition, using self-designed, 64-bit ARM-based Apple M1 processors on freshMac computers.
The heritage of what would become macOS had originated at NeXT, a organizationfounded by Steve Jobs following his departure from Apple in 1985. There, the Unix-like NeXTSTEP operating system was developed, before being launched in 1989. The kernel of NeXTSTEP is based upon the Mach kernel, which was originally developed at Carnegie Mellon University, with additional kernel layers and low-level utilize space code derived from parts of BSD. Its graphical utilize interface was built on top of an object-oriented GUI toolkit using the Objective-C programming language.
Throughout the early 1990s, Apple had tried to create a "next-generation" OS to succeed its classic Mac OS through the Taligent, Copland and Gershwin projects, but all were eventually abandoned. This led Apple to purchase NeXT in 1996, allowing NeXTSTEP, then called OPENSTEP, to serve as the basis for Apple's next generation operating system. This purchase also led to Steve Jobs returning to Apple as an interim, and then the permanent CEO, shepherding the transformation of the programmer-friendly OPENSTEP into a system that would be adopted by Apple's basicmarket of home users and creative professionals. The project was first code named "Rhapsody" and then officially named Mac OS X.
Mac OS X was originally presented as the tenth major version of Apple's operating system for Macintosh computers; until 2020, versions of macOS retained the major version number "10". The letter "X" in Mac OS X's name refers to the number 10, a Roman numeral, and Apple has stated that it canbe pronounced "ten" in this context. However, it is also commonly pronounced like the letter "X". Previous Macintosh operating systems (versions of the classic Mac OS) were named using Arabic numerals, as with Mac OS 8 and Mac OS 9. As of 2020 and 2021, Apple reverted to Arabic numeral versioning for successive releases, macOS 11 GiganticSur and macOS 12 Monterey, as they have done for the iPhone 11 and iPhone 12 following the iPhone X.
The first version of Mac OS X, Mac OS X Server 1.0, was a transitional product, featuring an interface resembling the classic Mac OS, though it was not compatible with programplannedfor the older system. Consumer releases of Mac OS X contain more backward compatibility. Mac OS app could be rewritten to run natively via the Carbon API; many could also be run directly through the Classic Environment with a reduction in performance.
The consumer version of Mac OS X was launched in 2001 with Mac OS X 10.0. Reviews were variable, with extensive praise for its sophisticated, glossy Aqua interface, but criticizing it for sluggish performance. With Apple's popularity at a low, the makers of several classic Mac app such as FrameMaker and PageMaker declined to develop freshversions of their programfor Mac OS X. Ars Technica columnist John Siracusa, who reviewed every major OS X release up to 10.10, described the early releases in retrospect as 'dog-slow, feature poor' and Aqua as 'unbearably slow and a largeresource hog'.
Apple rapidly developed several freshreleases of Mac OS X. Siracusa's review of version 10.3, Panther, noted "It's strange to have gone from years of uncertainty and vaporware to a steady annual supply of major freshoperating system releases." Version 10.4, Tiger, reportedly shocked executives at Microsoft by offering a number of features, such as quickfile searching and improved graphics processing, that Microsoft had spent several years struggling to add to Windows with acceptable performance.
As the operating system evolved, it moved away from the classic Mac OS, with app being added and removed. Considering melodyto be a key market, Apple developed the iPod melodyplayer and melodyprogramfor the Mac, including iTunes and GarageBand. Targeting the consumer and media markets, Apple emphasized its new "digital lifestyle" app such as the iLife suite, integrated home entertainment through the Front Row media center and the Safari web browser. With increasing popularity of the internet, Apple offered additional online services, including the .Mac, MobileMe and most recently iCloud products. It later began selling third-party app through the Mac ApplicationStore.
Newer versions of Mac OS X also contain modifications to the general interface, moving away from the striped gloss and transparency of the initial versions. Some app began to utilizea brushed metal appearance, or non-pinstriped title bar appearance in version 10.4. In Leopard, Apple announced a unification of the interface, with a standardized gray-gradient window style.
A key development for the system was the announcement and release of the iPhone from 2007 onwards. While Apple's previous iPod media players utilize a minimal operating system, the iPhone utilize an operating system based on Mac OS X, which would later be called "iPhone OS" and then iOS. The simultaneous release of two operating systems based on the same frameworks territory tension on Apple, which cited the iPhone as forcing it to delay Mac OS X 10.5 Leopard. However, after Apple opened the iPhone to third-party developers its commercial success drew attention to Mac OS X, with many iPhone programdevelopers showing interest in Mac development.
In 2007, Mac OS X 10.5 Leopard was the sole release with universal binary components, allowing installation on both Intel Macs and select PowerPC Macs. It is also the final release with PowerPC Mac support. Mac OS X 10.6 Snow Leopard was the first version of OS X to be built exclusively for Intel Macs, and the final release with 32-bit Intel Mac support. The name was intended to signal its status as an iteration of Leopard, focusing on techand performance improvements rather than utilize-facing features; indeed it was explicitly branded to developers as being a 'no freshfeatures' release. Since its release, several OS X or macOS releases (namely OS X Mountain Lion, OS X El Capitan, macOS High Sierra, and macOS Monterey) follow this pattern, with a name derived from its predecessor, similar to the 'tick–tock model' utilize by Intel.
In two succeeding versions, Lion and Mountain Lion, Apple moved some app to a highly skeuomorphic style of design inspired by contemporary versions of iOS while simplifying some elements by making controls such as scroll bars fade out when not in use. This direction was, like brushed metal interfaces, unpopular with some users, although it continued a trend of greater animation and variety in the interface previously seen in design aspects such as the Time Machine backup utility, which presented past file versions versusa swirling nebula, and the glossy translucent dock of Leopard and Snow Leopard. In addition, with Mac OS X 10.7 Lion, Apple ceased to release separate server versions of Mac OS X, selling server tools as a separate downloadable appthrough the Mac ApplicationStore. A review described the trend in the server products as becoming "cheaper and easy... shifting its focus from hugebusinesses to tinyones."
In 2012, with the release of OS X 10.8 Mountain Lion, the name of the system was shortened from Mac OS X to OS X. That year, Apple removed the head of OS X development, Scott Forstall, and design was modify towards a more minimal direction. Apple's freshutilize interface design, using deep color saturation, text-only buttons and a minimal, 'flat' interface, was debuted with iOS 7 in 2013. With OS X engineers reportedly working on iOS 7, the version released in 2013, OS X 10.9 Mavericks, was something of a transitional release, with some of the skeuomorphic design removed, while most of the general interface of Mavericks remained unchanged. The next version, OS X 10.10 Yosemite, adopted a design similar to iOS 7 but with greater complexity suitable for an interface controlled with a mouse.
From 2012 onwards, the system has shifted to an annual release schedule similar to that of iOS. It also steadily cut the cost of updates from Snow Leopard onwards, before removing modernizefees altogether from 2013 onwards. Some journalists and third-party programdevelopers have recommendedthat this decision, while allowing more rapid feature release, meant less opportunity to focus on stability, with no version of OS X recommendable for users requiring stability and performance above freshfeatures. Apple's 2015 update, OS X 10.11 El Capitan, was announced to focus specifically on stability and performance improvements.
In 2016, with the release of macOS 10.12 Sierra, the name was modify from OS X to macOS to align it with the branding of Apple's other basicoperating systems: iOS, watchOS, and tvOS. macOS 10.12 Sierra's main features are the introduction of Siri to macOS, Optimized Storage, improvements to contain app, and greater integration with Apple's iPhone and Apple Watch. The Apple File System (APFS) was announced at Apple's annual Worldwide Developers Conference (WWDC) in June 2016 as a replacement for HFS+, a highly criticized file system.
Apple previewed macOS 10.13 High Sierra at WWDC 2017, before releasing it later that year. When running on solid state drives, it utilize APFS, rather than HFS+. Its successor, macOS 10.14 Mojave, was released in 2018, adding a dark utilize interface option and a dynamic wallpaper setting. It was succeeded by macOS 10.15 Catalina in 2019, which replaces iTunes with separate application for different kind of media, and introduces the Catalyst system for porting iOS application.
In 2020, Apple previewed macOS 11 GiganticSur at the WWDC 2020. This was the first increment in the basicversion number of macOS since the release of Mac OS X Public Beta in 2000; updates to macOS 11 were given 11.x numbers, matching the version numbering scheme utilize by Apple's other operating systems. GiganticSur brought major modify to the UI and was the first version to run on the ARM instruction set. The freshnumbering system was continued in 2021 with macOS 12 Monterey.
At macOS's core is a POSIX-compliant operating system built on top of the XNU kernel, with standard Unix facilities accessiblefrom the command line interface. Apple has released this family of programas a free and open source operating system named Darwin. On top of Darwin, Apple layered a number of components, including the Aqua interface and the Finder, to complete the GUI-based operating system which is macOS.
With its original introduction as Mac OS X, the system brought a number of freshcapabilities to provide a more stable and reliable platform than its predecessor, the classic Mac OS. For example, pre-emptive multitasking and memory protection improved the system's ability to run multiple app simultaneously without them interrupting or corrupting each other. Many aspects of macOS's architecture are derived from OPENSTEP, which was plannedto be portable, to ease the transition from one platform to another. For example, NeXTSTEP was ported from the original 68k-based NeXT workstations to x86 and other architectures before NeXT was purchased by Apple, and OPENSTEP was later ported to the PowerPC architecture as part of the Rhapsody project.
Prior to macOS High Sierra, and on drives other than solid state drives (SSDs), the default file system is HFS+, which it inherited from the classic Mac OS. Operating system designer Linus Torvalds has criticized HFS+, saying it is "probably the worst file system ever", whose design is "actively corrupting utilize data". He criticized the case insensitivity of file names, a design angry worse when Apple extended the file system to support Unicode.
The Darwin subsystem in macOS manages the file system, which contain the Unix permissions layer. In 2003 and 2005, two Macworld editors expressed criticism of the permission scheme; Ted Landau called misconfigured permissions "the most common frustration" in macOS, while Rob Griffiths recommendedthat some users may even have to restartpermissions every day, a process which shouldtake up to 15 minutes. More recently, another Macworld editor, Dan Frakes, called the procedure of repairing permissions vastly overused. He argues that macOS typically handles permissions properly without utilize interference, and resetting permissions canonly be tried when issuesemerge.
The architecture of macOS incorporates a layered design: the layered frameworks aid rapid development of app by providing existing code for common tasks. Apple provides its own programdevelopment tools, most prominently an integrated development environment called Xcode. Xcode provides interfaces to compilers that assistanceseveral programming languages including C, C++, Objective-C, and Swift. For the Mac transition to Intel processors, it was modified so that developers could build their app as a universal binary, which provides compatibility with both the Intel-based and PowerPC-based Macintosh lines. First and third-party app shouldbe controlled programmatically using the AppleScript framework, retained from the classic Mac OS, or using the newer Automator appthat offers pre-written tasks that do not require programming knowledge.
|10.15 "Catalina"||13.0||13.0||2021 partial, 2020|
|10.13 "High Sierra"||13.1.2||11.0||10.4||12.8.2||11.0||2019|
|10.11 "El Capitan"||11.1.2||9.3||9.2||2014|
|10.8 "Mountain Lion"||6.2.8||Unknown||10.2||12.4.3||'09|
|10.7 "Lion"||6.1.6||10.1||12.2.2||8.0b or 6.0.1|
|10.6 "Snow Leopard"||5.1.10||4.5||11.4||5.0|
Apple offered two main APIs to develop programnatively for macOS: Cocoa and Carbon. Cocoa was a descendant of APIs inherited from OPENSTEP with no ancestry from the classic Mac OS, while Carbon was an adaptation of classic Mac OS APIs, allowing Mac programto be minimally rewritten to run natively on Mac OS X.
The Cocoa API was madeas the effectof a 1993 collaboration between NeXT Computer and Sun Microsystems. This heritage is highly visible for Cocoa developers, since the "NS" prefix is ubiquitous in the framework, standing variously for NeXTSTEP or NeXT/Sun. The official OPENSTEP API, published in September 1994, was the first to split the API between Foundation and ApplicationKit and the first to utilizethe "NS" prefix. Traditionally, Cocoa software have been mostly written in Objective-C, with Java as an alternative. However, on July 11, 2005, Apple announced that "features added to Cocoa in Mac OS X versions later than 10.4 will not be added to the Cocoa-Java programming interface." macOS also utilize to assistancethe Java Platform as a "preferred programpackage"—in practice this means that app written in Java fit as neatly into the operating system as possible while still being cross-platform compatible, and that graphical utilize interfaces written in Swing look almost exactly like native Cocoa interfaces. Since 2014, Apple has promoted its freshprogramming language Swift as the preferred language for programdevelopment on Apple platforms.
Apple's original plan with macOS was to require all developers to rewrite their programinto the Cocoa APIs. This caused much outcry among existing Mac developers, who threatened to abandon the platform rather than invest in a costly rewrite, and the idea was shelved. To permit a smooth transition from Mac OS 9 to Mac OS X, the Carbon AppProgramming Interface (API) was created. App written with Carbon were initially able to run natively on both classic Mac OS and Mac OS X, although this ability was later dropped as Mac OS X developed. Carbon was not contain in the first product sold as Mac OS X: the little-utilize original release of Mac OS X Server 1.0, which also did not containthe Aqua interface. Apple limited further development of Carbon from the release of Leopard onwards and announced that Carbon app would not run at 64-bit. A number of macOS app continued to utilizeCarbon for some time afterwards, especially ones with heritage dating back to the classic Mac OS and for which updates would be difficult, uneconomic or not necessary. This contain Microsoft Office up to Office 2016, and Photoshop up to CS5. Early versions of macOS could also run some classic Mac OS app through the Classic Environment with performance limitations; this feature was removed from 10.5 onwards and all Macs using Intel processors.
Because macOS is POSIX compliant, many programpack written for the other Unix-like systems including Linux shouldbe recompiled to run on it, including much scientific and techsoftware. Third-party projects such as Homebrew, Fink, MacPorts and pkgsrc provide pre-compiled or pre-formatted pack. Apple and others have deliveredversions of the X Window System graphical interface which shouldletthese app to run with an approximation of the macOS look-and-feel. The current Apple-endorsed wayis the open-source XQuartz project; earlier versions could utilizethe X11 appdeliveredby Apple, or before that the XDarwin project.
App shouldbe distributed to Macs and installed by the utilize from any source and by any waysuch as downloading (with or without code signing, accessiblevia an Apple developer account) or through the Mac ApplicationStore, a marketplace of programmaintained by Apple through a process requiring the organizations approval. Application installed through the Mac ApplicationShoprun within a sandbox, restricting their ability to exchange infowith other app or changethe core operating system and its features. This has been cited as an advantage, by allowing users to install application with confidence that they cannot be able to damage their system, but also as a disadvantage due to blocking the Mac ApplicationShops utilizefor professional app that require elevated privileges. App without any code signature cannot be run by default except from a computer's adminaccount.
Apple produces macOS app. Some are contain with macOS and some sold separately. This contain iWork, Final Cut Pro, Logic Pro, iLife, and the database application FileMaker. Numerous other developers also offer programfor macOS.
In 2018, Apple introduced an applayer, reportedly codenamed Marzipan, to port iOS application to macOS. macOS Mojave contain ports of four first-party iOS application including Home and Fresh, and it was announced that the API would be accessiblefor third-party developers to utilizefrom 2019.
|Operating system||Supported systems||Installation time||RAM requirement|
||6 - 8 hours||4 GB|
||30 - 110 minutes||2 GB|
|10.12 – 10.13||
||1.5 - 4 hours|
|10.8 – 10.11||
||30 - 75 minutes|
|10.7||Intel Macs (64-bit)
Rosetta assistancedropped from 10.7 and newer.
|35 - 45 minutes|
|10.6||Intel Macs (32-bit or 64-bit)||25 - 45 minutes||1 GB|
|10.5||G4, G5 and Intel Macs (32-bit or 64-bit) at 867 MHz or faster
Classic assistancedropped from 10.5 and newer.
|20 - 45 minutes||512 MB|
|10.4||Macs with built-in FireWire and either a FreshGlobeROM or Intel processor||20 - 60 minutes||256 MB|
|10.3||Macs with a FreshGlobeROM||10 - 30 minutes||128 MB|
|10.0 – 10.2||G3, G4 and G5 iBook and PowerBook, Power Mac and iMac|
(except PowerBook G3 "Kanga")
Tools such as XPostFacto and patches applied to the installation media have been developed by third parties to enable installation of newer versions of macOS on systems not officially supported by Apple. This contain a number of pre-G3 Power Macintosh systems that shouldbe angry to run up to and including Mac OS X 10.2 Jaguar, all G3-based Macs which shouldrun up to and including Tiger, and sub-867 MHz G4 Macs shouldrun Leopard by removing the restriction from the installation DVD or entering a command in the Mac's Open Firmware interface to tell the Leopard Installer that it has a clock rate of 867 MHz or greater. Except for features requiring specific hardware such as graphics acceleration or DVD writing, the operating system offers the same functionality on all supported hardware.
As most Mac hardware components, or components similar to those, since the Intel transition are accessiblefor purchase, some technology-capable groups have developed programto install macOS on non-Apple computers. These are referred to as Hackintoshes, a portmanteau of the words "hack" and "Macintosh". This violates Apple's EULA (and is therefore unsupported by Apple techsupport, warranties etc.), but communities that cater to privateusers, who do not install for resale and profit, have generally been ignored by Apple. These self-angry computers letmore flexibility and customization of hardware, but at a cost of leaving the utilize more responsible for their own machine, such as on matter of data integrity or security. Psystar, a business that attempted to profit from selling macOS on non-Apple certified hardware, was sued by Apple in 2008.
In April 2002, eWeek announced a rumor that Apple had a version of Mac OS X code-named Marklar, which ran on Intel x86 processors. The idea behind Marklar was to holdMac OS X running on an alternative platform canApple become dissatisfied with the progress of the PowerPC platform. These rumors subsided until late in May 2005, when various media outlets, such as The Wall RoadJournal and CNET, announced that Apple would unveil Marklar in the coming months.
On June 6, 2005, Steve Jobs announced in his keynote address at WWDC that Apple would be making the transition from PowerPC to Intel processors over the following two years, and that Mac OS X would assistanceboth platforms during the transition. Jobs also confirmed rumors that Apple had versions of Mac OS X running on Intel processors for most of its developmental life. Intel-based Macs would run a freshrecompiled version of OS X along with Rosetta, a binary translation layer which enables programcompiled for PowerPC Mac OS X to run on Intel Mac OS X machines. The system was contain with Mac OS X versions up to version 10.6.8. Apple dropped assistancefor Classic mode on the freshIntel Macs. Third party emulation programsuch as Mini vMac, Basilisk II and SheepShaver deliveredassistancefor some early versions of Mac OS. A freshversion of Xcode and the underlying command-line compilers supported building universal binaries that would run on either architecture.
PowerPC-only programis supported with Apple's official emulation software, Rosetta, though app eventually had to be rewritten to run properly on the newer versions released for Intel processors. Apple initially encouraged developers to produce universal binaries with assistancefor both PowerPC and Intel. PowerPC binaries suffer a performance penalty when run on Intel Macs through Rosetta. Moreover, some PowerPC software, such as kernel extensions and System Preferences plugins, are not supported on Intel Macs at all. Some PowerPC app would not run on macOS at all. Plugins for Safari need to be compiled for the same platform as Safari, so when Safari is running on Intel, it requires plug-ins that have been compiled as Intel-only or universal binaries, so PowerPC-only plug-ins will not work. While Intel Macs shouldrun PowerPC, Intel, and universal binaries, PowerPC Macs assistanceonly universal and PowerPC builds.
Assistancefor the PowerPC platform was dropped following the transition. In 2009, Apple announced at WWDC that Mac OS X 10.6 Snow Leopard would drop assistancefor PowerPC processors and be Intel-only. Rosetta continued to be offered as an optional download or installation choice in Snow Leopard before it was discontinued with Mac OS X 10.7 Lion. In addition, freshversions of Mac OS X first- and third-party programincreasingly neededIntel processors, including freshversions of iLife, iWork, Aperture and Logic Pro.
Rumors of Apple shifting Macs to the ARM processors utilize by iOS devices began circulating as early as 2011, and ebbed and flowed throughout the 2010s. Rumors intensified in 2020, when numerous reports announced that the organizationwould announce its shift to its custom processors at WWDC.
Apple officially announced its shift to processors plannedin-house on June 22, 2020, at WWDC 2020, with the transition designedto last for two years. The first release of macOS to assistanceARM is macOS GiganticSur.
The modifyin processor architecture let Macs with ARM processors to be able to run natively with iOS and iPadOS application.
One of the major differences between the classic Mac OS and the current macOS was the addition of Aqua, a graphical utilize interface with water-like elements, in the first major release of Mac OS X. Every window element, text, graphic, or widget is drawn on-screen using spatial anti-aliasing technology. ColorSync, a technology introduced many years before, was improved and built into the core drawing engine, to provide color matching for printing and multimedia professionals. Also, drop shadows were added around windows and isolated text elements to provide a sense of depth. Freshinterface elements were integrated, including sheets (dialog boxes attached to specific windows) and drawers, which would slide out and provide options.
The utilizeof soft edges, translucent colors, and pinstripes, similar to the hardware design of the first iMacs, brought more texture and color to the utilize interface when compared to what Mac OS 9 and Mac OS X Server 1.0's "Platinum" appearance had offered. According to Siracusa, the introduction of Aqua and its departure from the then conventional look "hit like a ton of bricks." Bruce Tognazzini (who founded the original Apple Human Interface Group) said that the Aqua interface in Mac OS X 10.0 represented a step backwards in usability compared with the original Mac OS interface. Third-party developers started producing skins for customizable app and other operating systems which mimicked the Aqua appearance. To some extent, Apple has utilize the successful transition to this freshdesign as leverage, at various times threatening legal action versuspeople who make or distribute programwith an interface the organizationsays is derived from its copyrighted design.
Apple has continued to modifyaspects of the macOS appearance and design, particularly with tweaks to the appearance of windows and the menu bar. Since 2012, Apple has sold many of its Mac models with high-resolution Retina displays, and macOS and its APIs have extensive assistancefor resolution-independent development on supporting high-resolution displays. Reviewers have described Apple's assistancefor the technology as superior to that on Windows.
The human interface guidelines published by Apple for macOS are followed by many app, giving them consistent utilize interface and keyboard shortcuts. In addition, freshservices for app are contain, which containspelling and grammar checkers, special hero palette, color picker, font select and dictionary; these global features are showin every Cocoa application, adding consistency. The graphics system OpenGL composites windows onto the screen to lethardware-accelerated drawing. This technology, introduced in version 10.2, is called Quartz Extreme, a component of Quartz. Quartz's internal imaging model correlates well with the Portable Document Format (PDF) imaging model, making it simpleto output PDF to multiple devices. As a side result, PDF viewing and creating PDF documents from any appare built-in features. Reflecting its popularity with design users, macOS also has system assistancefor a variety of professional video and photoformats and contain an extensive pre-installed font library, featuring many prominent brand-name designs.
The Finder is a file browser allowing fastadmissionto all location of the computer, which has been modified throughout subsequent releases of macOS. FastLook has been part of the Finder since version 10.5. It let for dynamic previews of files, including videos and multi-sitedocuments without opening any other app. Spotlight, a file searching technology which has been integrated into the Finder since version 10.4, let rapid real-time searches of data files; emailmessages; image; and other infobased on item properties (metadata) or content. macOS makes utilizeof a Dock, which keep file and folder shortcuts as well as minimized windows.
Apple added Exposé in version 10.3 (called Mission Control since version 10.7), a feature which contain three functions to assistaccessibility between windows and desktop. Its functions are to instantly display all open windows as thumbnails for simplenavigation to different tasks, display all open windows as thumbnails from the current application, and hide all windows to admissionthe desktop. FileVault is optional encryption of the utilize's files with the 128-bit Advanced Encryption Standard (AES-128).
Features introduced in version 10.4 include Automator, an appplannedto create an automatic workflow for different tasks; Dashboard, a full-screen group of tinyapp called desktop widgets that shouldbe called up and dismissed in one keystroke; and Front Row, a media viewer interface accessed by the Apple Remote. Sync Services let app to admissiona centralized extensible database for various elements of utilize data, including calendar and contact items. The operating system then managed conflicting edits and data consistency.
All system icons are scalable up to 512×512 pixels as of version 10.5 to accommodate various territory where they appear in huge size, including for example the Cover Flow view, a three-dimensional graphical utilize interface contain with iTunes, the Finder, and other Apple products for visually skimming through files and digital media libraries via cover artwork. That version also introduced Zone, a virtual desktop implementation which enables the utilize to have more than one desktop and display them in an Exposé-like interface; an automatic backup technology called Time Machine, which let users to view and restore previous versions of files and appdata; and Screen Sharing was built in for the first time.
In more lastestreleases, Apple has developed assistancefor emoji hero by including the proprietary Apple Color Emoji font. Apple has also connected macOS with social networks such as Twitter and Facebook through the addition of share buttons for materialsuch as pictures and text. Apple has brought several app and features that originally debuted in iOS, its mobile operating system, to macOS in lastestreleases, notably the cleverprivateassistant Siri, which was introduced in version 10.12 of macOS.
There are 39 system languages accessiblein macOS for the utilize at the moment of installation; the system language is utilize throughout the entire operating system environment. Input way for typing in dozens of scripts shouldbe selectedindependently of the system language. Latestupdates have added increased assistancefor Chinese hero and interconnections with famoussocial networks in China.
macOS shouldbe updated using the ProgramUpdate preference pane in System Preferences or the
softwareupdate command line utility. Until OS X 10.8 Mountain Lion, a separate ProgramUpdate appperformed this functionality. In Mountain Lion and later, this was merged into the Mac ApplicationStore application, although the underlying update mechanism remains unchanged and is fundamentally different from the download mechanism utilize when purchasing an ApplicationShopapplication. In macOS 10.14 Mojave, the updating function was moved again to the ProgramUpdate preference pane.
|Old version, no longer maintained: Rhapsody Developer Release||Grail1Z4 / Titan1U||Unknown||32-bit PowerPC||32-bit PowerPC||32-bit||January 7, 1997||August 31, 1997||DR2|
(May 14, 1998)
|Old version, no longer maintained: Mac OS X Server 1.0||Hera||Unknown||Unknown||March 16, 1999||1.2v3|
(October 27, 2000)
|Old version, no longer maintained: Mac OS X Developer Preview||Unknown||Unknown||May 11, 1998||March 16, 1999||DP4|
(April 5, 2000)
|Old version, no longer maintained: Mac OS X Public Beta||Kodiak||Unknown||May 15, 2000||September 13, 2000||N/A|
|Old version, no longer maintained: Mac OS X 10.0||Cheetah||1.3.1||January 9, 2001||March 24, 2001||10.0.4 (4Q12)|
(June 22, 2001)
|Old version, no longer maintained: Mac OS X 10.1||Puma||1.4.1 / 5||July 18, 2001||September 25, 2001||10.1.5 (5S60)|
(June 6, 2002)
|Old version, no longer maintained: Mac OS X 10.2||Jaguar||6||32/64-bit PowerPC[Note 1]||May 6, 2002||August 24, 2002||10.2.8|
(October 3, 2003)
|Old version, no longer maintained: Mac OS X 10.3||Panther||7||32/64-bit PowerPC||June 23, 2003||October 24, 2003||10.3.9 (7W98)|
(April 15, 2005)
|Old version, no longer maintained: Mac OS X 10.4||Tiger||8||32/64-bit PowerPC
|32/64-bit[Note 2] PowerPC[Note 3]
|May 4, 2004||April 29, 2005||10.4.11|
(November 14, 2007)
|Old version, no longer maintained: Mac OS X 10.5||Leopard||9||32/64-bit PowerPC[Note 3]
|June 26, 2006||October 26, 2007||10.5.8 (9L31a)|
(August 13, 2009)
|Old version, no longer maintained: Mac OS X 10.6||Snow Leopard||10||32/64-bit Intel||32/64-bit Intel
32-bit PowerPC[Note 3]
|32/64-bit||June 9, 2008||August 28, 2009||10.6.8 (10K549)|
(July 25, 2011)
|Old version, no longer maintained: Mac OS X 10.7||Lion||11||64-bit Intel||32/64-bit Intel||October 20, 2010||July 20, 2011||10.7.5 (11G63)|
(October 4, 2012)
|Old version, no longer maintained: OS X 10.8||Mountain Lion||12||64-bit||February 16, 2012||July 25, 2012||10.8.5 (12F2560)|
(August 13, 2015)
|Old version, no longer maintained: OS X 10.9||Mavericks||13||June 10, 2013||October 22, 2013||10.9.5 (13F1911)|
(July 18, 2016)
|Old version, no longer maintained: OS X 10.10||Yosemite||14||June 2, 2014||October 16, 2014||10.10.5 (14F2511)|
(July 19, 2017)
|Old version, no longer maintained: OS X 10.11||El Capitan||15||June 8, 2015||September 30, 2015||10.11.6 (15G22010)|
(July 9, 2018)
|Old version, no longer maintained: macOS 10.12||Sierra||16||June 13, 2016||September 20, 2016||10.12.6 (16G2136)|
(September 26, 2019)
|Old version, no longer maintained: macOS 10.13||High Sierra||17||June 5, 2017||September 25, 2017||10.13.6 (17G14042)|
(November 12, 2020)
|Old version, no longer maintained: macOS 10.14||Mojave||18||June 4, 2018||September 24, 2018||10.14.6 (18G9323)|
(July 21, 2021)
|Older version, yet still maintained: macOS 10.15||Catalina||19||64-bit Intel||June 3, 2019||October 7, 2019||10.15.7 (19H1519)|
(October 25, 2021)
|Older version, yet still maintained: macOS 11||GiganticSur||20||64-bit Intel and ARM||64-bit Intel and ARM[Note 4]||June 22, 2020||November 12, 2020||11.6.1 (20G224)|
(October 25, 2021)
|Current stable version: macOS 12||Monterey||21||June 7, 2021||October 25, 2021||12.0.1 (21A559)|
(October 25, 2021)
With the exception of Mac OS X Server 1.0 and the original public beta, OS X versions were named after giganticcats until OS X 10.9 Mavericks, when Apple switched to using California area. Prior to its release, Mac OS X 10.0 was code named "Cheetah" internally at Apple, and Mac OS X 10.1 was code named internally as "Puma". After the immense buzz surrounding Mac OS X 10.2, codenamed "Jaguar", Apple's product marketing began openly using the code names to promote the operating system. Mac OS X 10.3 was marketed as "Panther", Mac OS X 10.4 as "Tiger", Mac OS X 10.5 as "Leopard", Mac OS X 10.6 as "Snow Leopard", Mac OS X 10.7 as "Lion", OS X 10.8 as "Mountain Lion", and OS X 10.9 as "Mavericks".
"Panther", "Tiger" and "Leopard" are registered as trademarks of Apple, but "Cheetah", "Puma" and "Jaguar" have never been registered. Apple has also registered "Lynx" and "Cougar" as trademarks, though these were permittedto lapse. Computer retailer Tiger Direct sued Apple for its utilizeof the name "Tiger". On May 16, 2005, a US federal court in the Southern District of Florida ruled that Apple's utilizedid not infringe on Tiger Direct's trademark.
On September 13, 2000, Apple released a $29.95 "preview" version of Mac OS X, internally codenamed Kodiak, to gain feedback from users.
The "PB", as it was known, marked the first public availability of the Aqua interface and Apple angry many modify to the UI based on customer feedback. Mac OS X Public Beta expired and ceased to function in Spring 2001.
On March 24, 2001, Apple released Mac OS X 10.0 (internally codenamed Cheetah). The initial version was slow, incomplete, and had very few app accessibleat launch, mostly from independent developers. While many critics recommendedthat the operating system was not ready for mainstream adoption, they recognized the importance of its initial beginas a base on which to improve. Simply releasing Mac OS X was get by the Macintosh community as a amazingaccomplishment, for attempts to overhaul the Mac OS had been underway since 1996, and delayed by countless setbacks.
Later that year on September 25, 2001, Mac OS X 10.1 (internally codenamed Puma) was released. It featured increased performance and deliveredmissing features, such as DVD playback. Apple released 10.1 as a free modernizeCD for 10.0 users, in addition to the US$129 boxed version for people running Mac OS 9. It was discovered that the modernizeCDs were full install CDs that could be utilize with Mac OS 9 systems by removing a specific file; Apple later re-released the CDs in an actual stripped-down format that did not facilitate installation on such systems. On January 7, 2002, Apple announced that Mac OS X was to be the default operating system for all Macintosh products by the end of that month.
On August 23, 2002, Apple followed up with Mac OS X 10.2 Jaguar, the first release to utilizeits code name as part of the branding. It brought amazingraw performance improvements, a sleeker look, and many strongutilize-interface enhancements (over 150, according to Apple ), including Quartz Extreme for compositing graphics directly on an ATI Radeon or Nvidia GeForce2 MX AGP-based video vehicle with at least 16 MB of VRAM, a system-wide repository for contact infoin the new Address Book, and an instant messaging client named iChat. The SatisfiedMac which had appeared during the Mac OS startup sequence for almost 18 years was replaced with a hugegrey Apple logo with the introduction of Mac OS X v10.2.
Mac OS X v10.3 Panther was released on October 24, 2003. It significantly improved performance and incorporated the most extensive update yet to the utilize interface. Panther contain as many or more freshfeatures as Jaguar had the year before, including an updated Finder, incorporating a brushed-metal interface, Quickutilize switching, Exposé (Window manager), FileVault, Safari, iChat AV (which added video conferencing features to iChat), improved Portable Document Format (PDF) rendering and much greater Microsoft Windows interoperability. Assistancefor some early G3 computers such as "beige" Power Macs and "WallStreet" PowerBooks was discontinued.
Mac OS X 10.4 Tiger was released on April 29, 2005. Apple stated that Tiger contained more than 200 freshfeatures. As with Panther, certain older machines were no longer supported; Tiger requires a Mac with 256 MB and a built-in FireWire port. Among the freshfeatures, Tiger introduced Spotlight, Dashboard, Smart Folders, updated Emailsoftwarewith Smart Mailboxes, QuickTime 7, Safari 2, Automator, VoiceOver, Core Image and Core Video. The initial release of the Apple TV utilize a modified version of Tiger with a different graphical interface and fewer app and services. On January 10, 2006, Apple released the first Intel-based Macs along with the 10.4.4 update to Tiger. This operating system functioned identically on the PowerPC-based Macs and the freshIntel-based machines, with the exception of the Intel release lacking assistancefor the Classic environment.
Mac OS X 10.5 Leopard was released on October 26, 2007. It was called by Apple "the biggestupdate of Mac OS X". It brought more than 300 freshfeatures. Leopard assistance both PowerPC- and Intel x86-based Macintosh computers; assistancefor the G3 processor was dropped and the G4 processor neededa minimum clock rate of 867 MHz, and at least 512 MB of RAM to be installed. The single DVD works for all supported Macs (including 64-bit machines). Freshfeatures containa freshlook, an updated Finder, Time Machine, Zone, Boot Camp pre-installed, full assistancefor 64-bit app (including graphical app), freshfeatures in Mail and iChat, and a number of freshsafetyfeatures. Leopard is an Open Brand UNIX 03 registered product on the Intel platform. It was also the first BSD-based OS to getUNIX 03 certification. Leopard dropped assistancefor the Classic Environment and all Classic app. It was the final version of Mac OS X to assistancethe PowerPC architecture.
Mac OS X 10.6 Snow Leopard was released on August 28, 2009. Rather than delivering giganticmodify to the appearance and end utilize functionality like the previous releases of Mac OS X, Snow Leopard focused on "under the hood" modify, increasing the performance, efficiency, and stability of the operating system. For most users, the most noticeable modify were: the disk zonethat the operating system frees up after a clean install compared to Mac OS X 10.5 Leopard, a more responsive Finder rewritten in Cocoa, faster Time Machine backups, more reliable and utilize-friendly disk ejects, a more strongversion of the Preview application, as well as a faster Safari web browser. Snow Leopard only supported machines with Intel CPUs, neededat least 1 GB of RAM, and dropped default assistancefor app built for the PowerPC architecture (Rosetta could be installed as an additional component to retain assistancefor PowerPC-only app).
Snow Leopard also featured new 64-bit technology capable of supporting greater amounts of RAM, improved assistancefor multi-core processors through Grand Central Dispatch, and advanced GPU performance with OpenCL.
The 10.6.6 update introduced assistancefor the Mac ApplicationStore, Apple's digital distribution platform for macOS app.
OS X 10.7 Lion was released on July 20, 2011. It brought developments angry in Apple's iOS, such as an easily navigable display of installed app called Launchpad and a greater utilizeof multi-touch gestures, to the Mac. This release removed Rosetta, making it incompatible with PowerPC app.
Modify angry to the GUI containauto-hiding scrollbars that only appear when they are utilize, and Mission Control which unifies Exposé, Zone, Dashboard, and full-screen app within a single interface. Apple also angry modify to app: they resume in the same state as they were before they were closed, similar to iOS. Documents auto-save by default.
OS X 10.8 Mountain Lion was released on July 25, 2012. Following the release of Lion the previous year, it was the first of the annual rather than two-yearly updates to OS X (and later macOS), which also closely aligned with the annual iOS operating system updates. It incorporates some features seen in iOS 5, which include Game Center, assistancefor iMessage in the new Messages messaging application, and Reminders as a to-do list applicationseparate from iCal (which is renamed as Calendar, like the iOS app). It also contain assistancefor storing iWork documents in iCloud. Notification Center, which makes its debut in Mountain Lion, is a desktop version similar to the one in iOS 5.0 and higher. Apppop-ups are now concentrated on the corner of the screen, and the Center itself is pulled from the right side of the screen. Mountain Lion also contain more Chinese features including assistancefor Baidu as an option for Safari findengine, QQ, 163.com and 126.com services for Mail, Contacts and Calendar, Youku, Tudou and Sina Weibo are integrated into share sheets.
Starting with Mountain Lion, Apple programupdates (including the OS) are distributed via the ApplicationStore. This updating mechanism replaced the Apple ProgramUpdate utility.
OS X 10.9 Mavericks was released on October 22, 2013. It was a free modernizeto all users running Snow Leopard or later with a 64-bit Intel processor. Its modify containthe addition of the previously iOS-only Maps and iBooks app, improvements to the Notification Center, enhancements to several app, and many under-the-hood improvements.
OS X 10.10 Yosemite was released on October 16, 2014. It features a redesigned utilize interface similar to that of iOS 7, intended to feature a more minimal, text-based 'flat' design, with utilizeof translucency result and intensely saturated colors. Apple's showcase freshfeature in Yosemite is Handoff, which enables users with iPhones running iOS 8.1 or later to replytelephonecalls, getand send SMS messages, and complete unfinished iPhone mail on their Mac. As of OS X 10.10.3, Image replaced iPhoto and Aperture.
OS X 10.11 El Capitan was released on September 30, 2015. Similar to Mac OS X 10.6 Snow Leopard, Apple described this release as emphasizing "refinements to the Mac experience" and "improvements to system performance". Refinements containpublic transport built into the Maps application, GUI improvements to the Notes application, adopting San Francisco as the system font for clearer legibility, and the introduction of System Integrity Protection.
The Metal API, first introduced in iOS 8, was also contain in this operating system for "all Macs since 2012". According to Apple, Metal accelerates system-level rendering by up to 50 percent, resulting in faster graphics performance for dailyapplication. Metal also delivers up to 10 times faster draw call performance for more fluid experience in games and pro application.
macOS 10.12 Sierra was released to the public on September 20, 2016. Freshfeatures containthe addition of Siri, Optimized Storage, and updates to Image, Messages, and iTunes.
macOS 10.13 High Sierra was released to the public on September 25, 2017. Like OS X El Capitan and OS X Mountain Lion, High Sierra is a refinement-based update having very few freshfeatures visible to the utilize, including updates to Safari, Image, and Mail, among other modify.
The major modifyunder the hood is the switch to the Apple File System, optimized for the solid-state storage utilize in most freshMac computers.
macOS 10.14 Mojave was released on September 24, 2018. The update introduced a system-wide dark mode and several freshapplication lifted from iOS, such as Apple Fresh. It was the first version to require a GPU that assistance Metal. Mojave also modify the system programupdate mechanism from the ApplicationStore (where it had been since OS X Mountain Lion) to a freshpanel in System Preferences. Applicationupdates remain in the ApplicationStore.
macOS 10.15 Catalina was released on October 7, 2019. Updates contain enhanced voice control, and bundled application for music, video, and podcasts that together replace the functions of iTunes, and the ability to utilizean iPad as an external monitor. Catalina officially dropped assistancefor 32-bit app.
macOS GiganticSur was announced during the WWDC keynote speech on June 22, 2020, and it was angry accessibleto the general public on November 12, 2020. This is the first time the major version number of the operating system has been incremented since the Mac OS X Public Beta in 2000. It brings ARM support, freshicons, and aesthetic utilize interface modify to the system.
macOS Monterey was announced during the WWDC keynote speech on June 7, 2021 and released on October 25, 2021, introducing Universal Control (which let input devices to be utilize with multiple devices simultaneously), Focus (which let selectively limiting notifications and alerts depending on utilize-defined utilize/work modes), Shortcuts (a task automation framework previously accessibleonly on iOS and expected to replace Automator), a redesigned Safari Web browser, and updates and improvements to FaceTime.
As of July 2016, macOS is the second-most-active general-purpose desktop client operating system utilize on the GlobeWide Web following Microsoft Windows, with a 4.90% usage share according to statscompiled by the Wikimedia Foundation. It is the second-most widely utilize desktop operating system (for web browsing), after Windows, and is estimated at approximately five times the usage of Linux (which has 1.01%). Usage share generally continues to shift away from the desktop and toward mobile operating systems such as iOS and Android.
In its earlier years, Mac OS X enjoyed a near-absence of the kind of malware and spyware that have affected Microsoft Windows users. macOS has a smaller usage share compared to Windows. Worms, as well as potential vulnerabilities, were noted in 2006, which led some industry analysts and anti-virus companies to problemwarnings that Apple's Mac OS X is not immune to malware. Increasing market share coincided with additional reports of a variety of attacks. In early 2011, Mac OS X experienced a hugeincrease in malware attacks, and malware such as Mac Defender, MacProtector, and MacGuard was seen as an increasing issuefor Mac users. At first, the malware installer neededthe utilize to enter the administrative password, but later versions installed without utilize input. Initially, Apple assistancestaff were instructed not to helpin the removal of the malware or admit the existence of the malware issue, but as the malware spread, a assistancedocument was problem. Apple announced an OS X update to fix the problem. An estimated 100,000 users were affected. Apple releases safetyupdates for macOS regularly, as well as signature files containing malware signatures for Xprotect, an anti-malware feature part of File Quarantine showsince Mac OS X Snow Leopard.
As a device company, Apple has mostly promoted macOS to sell Macs, with promotion of macOS updates focused on existing users, promotion at Apple Store and other retail partners, or through happening for developers. In huge scale advertising campaigns, Apple specifically promoted macOS as better for handling media and other home-utilize app, and comparing Mac OS X (especially versions Tiger and Leopard) with the massivecriticism Microsoft get for the long-awaited Windows Vista operating system.
|Wikimedia Commons has media associatedto .|
Tags: Macos tricks tips, Macos hack download, Macos cheat engine, Macos hack tool, Macos cheats online