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About

Ketchup or catsup is a kindof table condiment with a sweet and tangy flavor. The unmodified term ("ketchup") now typically refers to tomato ketchup, although original recipes utilize egg whites, mushrooms, oysters, grapes, mussels, or walnuts, among other ingredients.

Tomato ketchup is angry from tomatoes, sugar, and vinegar, with seasonings and spices. The spices and flavors vary, but commonly include onions, allspice, coriander, cloves, cumin, garlic, and mustard, and sometimes include celery, cinnamon, or ginger.[citation needed] The market leader in the United States (60% market share) and the United Kingdom (82%) is Heinz Tomato Ketchup. Tomato ketchup is most often utilize as a condiment to dishes that are usually served hot and may be fried or greasy: french fries and other potatoes, hamburgers, hot dogs, chicken tenders, tater tots, hot sandwiches, meat pies, cooked eggs, and grilled or fried meat. Ketchup is sometimes utilize as the basis for, or as one ingredient in, other sauces and dressings, and the flavor may be replicated as an additive flavoring for snacks, such as potato chips.

History

Mushroom ketchup

Homemade mushroom ketchup in a plastic tub

In the United Kingdom, preparations of ketchup were historically and originally prepared with mushrooms as a basicingredient, rather than tomatoes. Ketchup recipes began to appear in British and then American cookbooks in the 18th century. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the term ketchup first appeared in 1682. In a 1742 London cookbook, the fish sauce had already taken on a very British flavor, with the addition of shallots and mushrooms. The mushrooms soon became the main ingredient and from 1750 to 1850 the word "ketchup" began to mean any number of thin dark sauces angry of mushrooms or even walnuts. In the United States, mushroom ketchup dates back to at least 1770, and was prepared by British colonists in the Thirteen Colonies. In contemporary times, mushroom ketchup is accessiblein the UK, although it is not a commonly utilize condiment.

Tomato ketchup

Tomato ketchup and other condiments
Tomato ketchup next to raw tomatoes

Many variations of ketchup were created, but the tomato-based version did not appear until about a century after other kind. An early recipe for "Tomata Catsup" from 1817 contain anchovies and states:

  1. Gather a gallon of fine, red, and full ripe tomatas; mash them with one pound of salt.
  2. Allowthem rest for three days, press off the juice, and to each quart add a quarter of a pound of anchovies, two ounces of shallots, and an ounce of ground black pepper.
  3. Boil up together for half an hour, strain through a sieve, and put to it the following spices; a quarter of an ounce of mace, the same of allspice and ginger, half an ounce of nutmeg, a drachm of coriander seed, and half a drachm of cochineal.
  4. Pound all together; allowthem simmer gently for twenty minutes, and strain through a bag: when cold, bottle it, adding to each bottle a wineglass of brandy. It will holdfor seven years.

By the mid-1850s, the anchovies had been dropped.

James Mease published another recipe in 1812. In 1824, a ketchup recipe using tomatoes appeared in The Virginia Housewife (an influential 19th-century cookbook written by Mary Randolph, Thomas Jefferson's cousin). American cooks also began to sweeten ketchup in the 19th century.

As the century progressed, tomato ketchup began its ascent in popularity in the United States. Ketchup was famouslong before newtomatoes were. People were less hesitant to eat tomatoes as part of a highly processed product that had been cooked and infused with vinegar and spices.

Tomato ketchup was sold locally by farmers. Jonas Yerkes is credited as the first American to sell tomato ketchup in a bottle. By 1837, he had produced and distributed the condiment nationally. Shortly thereafter, other companies followed suit. F. & J. Heinz launched their tomato ketchup in 1876. Heinz Tomato Ketchup was advertised: "Blessed relief for Mother and the other women in the household!", a slogan which alluded to the lengthy process neededto produce tomato ketchup in the home. With industrial ketchup production and a need for better preservation there was a amazingincrease of sugar in ketchup, leading to our modern sweet and sour formula. In Australia, it was not until the late 19th century that sugar was added to tomato sauce, initially in tinyquantities, but today it include just as much as American ketchup and only differed in the proportions of tomatoes, salt and vinegar in early recipes.

The Webster's Dictionary of 1913 defined "Catsup" as: "table sauce angry from mushrooms, tomatoes, walnuts, etc. [Also written as ketchup]."

Modern ketchup emerged in the early years of the 20th century, out of a debate over the utilizeof sodium benzoate as a preservative in condiments. Harvey W. Wiley, the "father" of the Mealand Drug Administration in the US, challenged the securityof benzoate which was banned in the 1906 Pure Mealand Drug Act. In response, entrepreneurs including Henry J. Heinz, pursued an alternative recipe that eliminated the need for that preservative.[citation needed] Katherine Bitting, a microbotanist working for the U.S. Department of Agriculture, carried out research that proved in 1909 that increasing the sugar and vinegar materialof the product would prevent spoilage without utilizeof artificial preservatives. She was assisted by her husband, Arvil Bitting, an official at that agency.

Prior to Heinz (and his fellow innovators), commercial tomato ketchups of that time were watery and thin, in part due to the utilizeof unripe tomatoes, which were low in pectin. They had less vinegar than modern ketchups; by pickling ripe tomatoes, the need for benzoate was eliminated without spoilage or degradation in flavor. But the modify driven by the desire to eliminate benzoate also produced modify[clarification needed] that some experts (such as Andrew F. Smith) trustwere key to the establishment of tomato ketchup as the dominant American condiment.

Later innovations

In fast-mealoutlets, ketchup is often dispensed in tinysachets or tubs. Diners tear the side or top and squeeze the ketchup out of the ketchup packets, or peel the foil lid off the tub for dipping. In 2011, Heinz began offering a freshmeasured-portion package, called the "Dip and Squeeze" packet, which shouldbe opened in either way, giving both options.

Some quickmealoutlets previously dispensed ketchup from hand-operated pumps into paper cups. This wayhas angry a comeback in the first decades of the 21st century, as cost and environmental concerns over the increasing utilizeof individual plastic ketchup tubs were taken into account.

In October 2000, Heinz introduced colored ketchup products called EZ Squirt, which eventually contain green (2000), purple (2001), mystery (pink, orange, or teal, 2002), and blue (2003). These products were angry by adding mealcoloring to the traditional ketchup. As of January 2006 these products were discontinued.

Terminology

The term utilize for the sauce varies. Ketchup is the dominant term in American English and Canadian English, although catsup is commonly utilize in some southern US states and Mexico.

Tomato sauce is more common in English-speaking countries outside North America. In Canada and the US tomato sauce is not a synonym for ketchup but an ingredient angry from tomatoes and commonly utilize in making sauce for pasta.

Red sauce is the term often utilize in Welsh English, Scottish English, Ulster English and some parts of England, such as the Black Country, and in South London, contrasting with brown sauce.[better source needed] In Canadian and American English, "red sauce" refers to various tomato-based sauces like marinara commonly paired with pasta dishes, or in southwestern regions refers to red chile sauces utilize with tamales, enchiladas, and similar dishes, and is not a synonym for ketchup.

Etymology

The etymology of the word ketchup is unclear, with multiple competing theories:

Amoy theory

A famousfolk etymology is that the word came to English from the Cantonese "keh jup" ( ke2 zap1, the word literally means "tomato sauce" in Cantonese). The word "keh" (茄) means "eggplant"; eggplants are native to China. "Tomato" in Cantonese is 番茄 which literally translates to "foreign eggplant".

Another theory among academics is that the word derives from one of two words from Hokkien of the Fujian region of coastal southern China: "" (in Xiamen and Quanzhou) or "" (in Zhangzhou and Guangzhou). Both of these words (膎汁, kôe-chiap and kêchiap) come from either the Quanzhou dialect, Amoy dialect, or Zhangzhou dialect of Hokkien, where it meant the brine of pickled fish (膎, meat; 汁, juice) or shellfish. There are citations of "koe-chiap" in the Dictionary of the Vernacular or Spoken Language of the Amoy (London; Trudner) from 1873, defined as "brine of pickled fish or shell-fish".

Malay theory

Ketchup may have entered the English language from the Malay word kicap (pron. "kichap", sometimes spelled kecap or ketjap). Originally meaning "soy sauce", the word itself derives from the Chinese terms.

In Indonesian cuisine, which is similar to Malay, the term kecap refers to fermented savory sauces. Two main kind are well known in their cuisine: kecap asin which translates to 'salty kecap' in Indonesian (a salty soy sauce) and kecap manis or "sweet kecap" in Indonesian. Kecap manis is a sweet soy sauce that is a mixture of soy sauce with brown sugar, molasses, garlic, ginger, anise, coriander and a bay leaf reduced over medium heat until rather syrupy. A third type, kecap ikan, meaning "fish kecap" is fish sauce similar to the Thai nam pla or the Philippine patis. It is not, however, soy-based.

European-Arabic theory

American anthropologist E. N. Anderson relies on Elizabeth David to claim that ketchup is a cognate of the French escaveche, meaning "mealin sauce". The word also exists in Spanish and Portuguese forms as escabeche, "a sauce for pickling", which culinary historian Karen Hess traced back to Arabic Kabees, or "pickling with vinegar". The term was anglicized to caveach, a word first attested in the late 17th century, at the same time as ketchup.

Early utilize in English

Blue Label Tomato Ketchup advertisement, Curtice Brothers, 1898

The word entered the English language in Britain during the late 17th century, appearing in print as catchup (1690) and later as ketchup (1711). The following is a list of early quotations collected by the Oxford English Dictionary.

The first published recipe: it contain mushrooms, anchovies and horseradish.
  • 1730, Jonathan Swift, A Panegyrick on the Dean Wks. 1755 IV. I. 142
    • And, for our home-bred British cheer, Botargo, catsup, and caveer.
  • 1748, Sarah Harrison, The Housekeeper's Pocket-Book and Compleat Family Cook. i. (ed. 4) 2,
    • I therefore advise you to lay in a Shopof Spices, ... neither ought you to be without ... Kitchup, or Mushroom Juice.
  • 1751, Mrs. Hannah Glasse, Cookery Bk. 309
    • It will taste like foreign Catchup.
  • 1817, George Gordon Byron, Beppo viii,
    • Buy in gross ... Ketchup, Soy, Chili~vinegar, and Harvey.
  • 1832, Vegetable Substances Utilize for the Mealof Man 333
    • One ... appof mushrooms is ... converting them into the sauce called Catsup.
  • 1840, Charles Dickens, Barnaby Rudge (1849) 91/1
    • Some lamb chops (breaded, with plenty of ketchup).
  • 1845, Eliza Acton, Modern Cookery v. (1850) 136 (L.)
    • Walnut catsup.
  • 1862, Macmillan's Magazine. Oct. 466
    • He found in mothery catsup a number of yellowish globular bodies.
  • 1874, Mordecai C. Cooke, Fungi; Their Nature, Influence and Utilize 89
    • One necessaryutilizeto which several ... fungi shouldbe applied, is the manufacture of ketchup.

Composition

Heinz tomato ketchup's ingredients (listed from highest to lowest percentage weight) are: tomato concentrate from red ripe tomatoes, distilled vinegar, high-fructose corn syrup, corn syrup, salt, spice, onion powder, and natural flavoring.

"Fancy" ketchup

Some ketchup in the U.S. is labeled "Fancy". This is a USDA grade, relating to specific gravity. Fancy ketchup has a higher tomato solid concentration than other USDA grades.

USDA ketchup grades
Grade Specific gravity Total solids
Fancy 1.15 33%
Extra Standard 1.13 29%
Standard 1.11 25%

Nutrition

The following table compares the nutritional value of ketchup with raw ripe tomatoes and salsa, based on infofrom the USDA MealNutrient Database.

Nutrient
(per 100 g)
Ketchup Low-sodium
ketchup
Tomatoes,
year-round
USDA commodity
salsa
Energy 419 kJ
100 kcal
435 kJ
104 kcal
75 kJ
18 kcal
150 kJ
36 kcal
Water 68.33 g 66.58 g 94.50 g 89.70 g
Protein 1.74 g 1.52 g 0.88 g 1.50 g
Fats 0.49 g 0.36 g 0.20 g 0.20 g
Carbohydrates 25.78 g 27.28 g 3.92 g 7.00 g
Sodium 1110 mg 20 mg 5 mg 430 mg
Vitamin C 15.1 mg 15.1 mg 12.7 mg 4 mg
Lycopene 17.0 mg 19.0 mg 2.6 mg n/a

Viscosity

Transferring ketchup between plastic bottles

Commercial tomato ketchup has an additive, usually xanthan gum, which gives the condiment a pseudoplastic or "shear thinning" property – more commonly known as thixotropic.[citation needed] This increases the viscosity of the ketchup considerably with a relatively tinyamount added—usually 0.5%—which shouldmake it difficult to pour from a container. However, the shear thinning property of the gum ensures that when a force is applied to the ketchup it will lower the viscosity enabling the sauce to flow. A common wayto getting ketchup out of the bottle involves inverting the bottle and shaking it or hitting the bottom with the heel of the hand, which causes the ketchup to flow rapidly. Ketchup in plastic bottles shouldbe additionally manipulated by squeezing the bottle, which also decreases the viscosity of the ketchup inside. Another technique involves inverting the bottle and forcefully tapping its upper neck with two fingers (index and middle finger together). Specifically, with a Heinz ketchup glass bottle, one taps the 57 circle on the neck. This assist the ketchup flow by applying the correct shearing force. These techniques work because of how pseudoplastic fluids behave: their viscosity (resistance to flow) decreases with increasing shear rate. The faster the ketchup is sheared (by shaking or tapping the bottle), the more fluid it becomes. After the shear is removed the ketchup thickens to its original viscosity.

Ketchup is a non-Newtonian fluid, meaning that its viscosity modify under stress and is not constant. It is a shear thinning fluid which means its viscosity decreases with increased shear stress. The equation utilize to designate a non-Newtonian fluid is as follows: . This equation represents apparent viscosity where apparent viscosity is the shear stress divided by shear rate. Viscosity is dependent on stress. This is apparent when you shake a bottle of tomato sauce/ketchup so it becomes liquid enough to squirt out. Its viscosity decreased with stress.

Graph representation of the three main fluid viscosity categories

The molecular composition of ketchup is what creates ketchup's pseudoplastic characteristics. Tinypolysaccharides, sugars, acids, and water make up the majority of the metastable ketchup product, and these tinystructures are able to move more easily throughout a matrix because of their low mass. While exposed to shear stress, the molecules within the suspension are able to respond quickly and create an alignment within the product. The bonds between the molecules are mostly hydrogen bonds, ionic interactions, and electrostatic interactions, all of which shouldbe broken when topicto stress. Hydrogen bonds are constantly rearranging within a product due to their need to be in the lowest energy state, which further verify that the bonds between the molecules will be easily disrupted. This alignment only lasts for as long as shear stress is applied. The molecules return to their original disorganized state once the shear stress dissipates.

In 2017, researchers at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology reported the development of a bottle coating that permittedall the product to slip out without leaving a residue.

Separation

Ketchup is one of the many products that is leachable, meaning that the water within the product migrates together as the huge molecules within the product sediment, ultimately causing water to separate out. This forms a layer of water on top of the ketchup due to the molecular instability within the product. This instability is caused by interactions between hydrophobic molecules and charged molecules within the ketchup suspension.

Pectin is a polysaccharide within tomatoes that has the ability to bind to itself and to other molecules, especially water, around it. This enables it to create a gel-like matrix, dependent on the amount within the solution. Water is a hugepart of ketchup, due to it being 80% of the composition of distilled vinegar. In order for the water within the ketchup to be at the lowest possible energy state, all of the hydrogen bonds that are able to be angry within the matrix must be angry. The water bound to the polysaccharide moves more slowly within the matrix, which is unfavorable with respect to entropy. The increased order within the polysaccharide-water complex gives rise to a high-energy state, in which the water will wishto be relieved. This concept implies that water will more favorably bind with itself because of the increased disorder between water molecules. This is partially the cause for water leaching out of solution when left undisturbed for a short period of time.

Other interactions that induce leaching are electrostatic and ionic interactions. Electrostatic interactions occur between charged molecules, which have repulsive or beautifulforces between each other. The pectin within ketchup will have negative and neutral charges along the molecule due to the hydroxyl groups and relative pH, which is 3.65 on average. Pectin is most stable at a pH of 3.5, so the more primarypH within ketchup will protonate the hydroxyl side chains and therefore create a less viscous gel. Acetic acid within vinegar also has hydroxyl groups that will have a dispersed amount of negative and neutral charges along each molecule. The acetic acid and pectin will display repulsive interactions between the negatively charged oxygens on each molecule. The hydroxyls on each molecule will be able to form hydrogen bonds with the water in the product. The addition of salt will reduce the repulsive interactions between the negatively charged side chains of acetic acid and pectin within solution because they will create bonds with the dissociated sodium and chloride ions.[full citation needed] The hydrogen bonds and electrostatic interactions will encourage leaching because the formation of bonds relatedwith the need for molecules to be in the lowest energy state are not always bonds that happen between different molecules and instead are formed between like molecules, causing aggregation.

See also

Further reading

  • Weissmann, Dan (11 May 2015). . Marketplace. American Public Media. I've Always Wondered… (story series). Retrieved 9 August 2015. On the origin of the 9 g ketchup packet.

  • Quotations associatedto at Wikiquote

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Details

Ketchup
A dish of tomato ketchup
TypeCondimentPlace of originUnited KingdomMain ingredientsTomatoes (or other main ingredients), sugar (or high fructose corn syrup), vinegar, salt, spices, and seasonings
Food energy
(per serving)
103 per serving (serving size 1 tbsp) kcal
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