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Use Chrome keyboard shortcuts: Ctrl+1-9: Switch between different tabs with these shortcut. Here, 1 is the first tab and 9 being the last. Ctrl+Tab: This keyboard shortcut lets you switch to the next tab on the right. Move to the tab on the left by using Ctrl+Shift+Tab. Ctrl+Shift+N: Open Incognito mode with this shortcut. Ctrl+Shift+T: Accidentally closed a tab? Hit this keyboard shortcut to quickly reopen it. You can also hit the key multiple times to restore multiple tabs. Ctrl+Shift+Delete: This keyboard shortcut takes you to the "Clear browsing data" page, where you can clear Chrome’s cookies, cache, history & other data. Ctrl+L: Quickly move your cursor to the Omnibox with this shortcut. Shift+Esc: Want to keep a check on the memory hogging tabs? Just hit this shortcut to open up Chrome’s task manager. Ctrl+W: Quickly close a tab with this keyboard shortcut. Ctrl+N: Quickly open a new Chrome window with this shortcut. Ctrl+T: This keyboard shortcut lets you open a new tab instantly.   1 0

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Well, most of us are familiar with split-screen mode on our Android devices which allows us to use 2 apps at once. However, not many of us know that we can even use the split-screen mode to display 2 Chrome tabs at once. To do this, first launch "Chrome" on your phone and then open a couple of tabs. Now go into the split screen mode as you normally do and just select Chrome. Now, tap on the three-dots menu at the top right and then tap on "Move to Other Window". As soon as you do that you will see that browser has opened two tabs in a split-screen mode allowing you to browse 2 websites at once. This feature can be really helpful when you want to cross-check information from multiple websites.   1 0


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Google Chrome is a cross-platform web browser developed by Google. It was first released in 2008 for Microsoft Windows, built with free software components from Apple WebKit and Mozilla Firefox. It was later ported to Linux, macOS, iOS, and Android, where it is the default browser. The browser is also the main component of Chrome OS, where it serves as the platform for web app.

Most of Chrome's source code comes from Google's free and open-source software project Chromium, but Chrome is licensed as proprietary freeware. WebKit was the original rendering engine, but Google eventually forked it to create the Blink engine; all Chrome variants except iOS now utilizeBlink.

As of October 2021, StatCounter estimates that Chrome has a 68% worldwide browser market share (after peaking at 72.38% in November 2018) on privatecomputers (PC), is most utilize on tablets (having surpassed Safari), and is also dominant on smartphones, and at 65% across all platforms combined. Because of this success, Google has expanded the "Chrome" brand name to other products: Chrome OS, Chromecast, Chromebook, Chromebit, Chromebox, and Chromebase.


Google CEO Eric Schmidt opposed the development of an independent web browser for six years. He stated that "at the time, Google was a tinycompany", and he did not wishto go through "bruising browser wars". After co-founders Sergey Brin and Larry Page hired several Mozilla Firefox developers and built a demonstration of Chrome, Schmidt said that "It was so awesomethat it essentially forced me to modifymy mind."

In September 2004, rumors of Google building a web browser first appeared. Online journals and U.S. newspapers stated at the time that Google was hiring former Microsoft web developers among others. It also came shortly after the release of Mozilla Firefox 1.0, which was surging in popularity and taking market share from Internet Explorer, which had noted safetyissue.

Development of the browser began in 2006 spearheaded by Sundar Pichai.


The release announcement was originally scheduled for September 3, 2008, and a comic by Scott McCloud was to be sent to journalists and bloggers explaining the features within the freshbrowser. Copies intended for Europe were shipped early and German blogger Philipp Lenssen of Google Blogoscoped angry a scanned copy of the 38-sitecomic accessibleon his domainafter receiving it on September 1, 2008. Google subsequently angry the comic accessibleon Google Books, and mentioned it on their official blog along with an explanation for the early release. The product was named "Chrome" as an initial development project code name, because it is relatedwith quickvehicle and speed. Google kept the development project name as the final release name, as a "cheeky" or ironic moniker, as one of the main aims was to minimize the utilize interface chrome.

Public release

An early version of Chromium for Linux, explaining the difference between Chrome and Chromium

The browser was first publicly released, officially as a beta version, on September 2, 2008 for Windows XP and newer, and with assistancefor 43 languages, and later as a "stable" public release on December 11, 2008. On that same day, a CNET fresh item drew attention to a passage in the Rulesof Service statement for the initial beta release, which seemed to grant to Google a license to all materialtransferred via the Chrome browser. This passage was inherited from the general Google rulesof service. Google responded to this criticism immediately by stating that the language utilize was borrowed from other products, and removed this passage from the Rulesof Service.

Chrome quickly gained about 1% usage share. After the initial surge, usage share dropped until it hit a low of 0.69% in October 2008. It then started rising again and by December 2008, Chrome again passed the 1% threshold. In early January 2009, CNET reported that Google designedto release versions of Chrome for OS X and Linux in the first half of the year. The first official Chrome OS X and Linux developer previews were announced on June 4, 2009, with a blog publicationsaying they were missing many features and were intended for early feedback rather than general use. In December 2009, Google released beta versions of Chrome for OS X and Linux. Google Chrome 5.0, announced on May 25, 2010, was the first stable release to assistanceall three platforms.

Chrome was one of the twelve browsers offered on to European Economic Area users of Microsoft Windows in 2010.


Chrome was assembled from 25 different code libraries from Google and third parties such as Mozilla's Netscape Portable Runtime, Network SafetyServices, NPAPI (dropped as of version 45), Skia Graphics Engine, SQLite, and a number of other open-source projects. The V8 JavaScript virtual machine was considered a sufficiently necessaryproject to be split off (as was Adobe/Mozilla's Tamarin) and handled by a separate squadin Denmark coordinated by Lars Bak in Aarhus. According to Google, existing implementations were designed "for tinysoftware, where the performance and interactivity of the system weren't that important", but web app such as Gmail "are using the web browser to the fullest when it comes to DOM manipulations and JavaScript", and therefore would significantly benefit from a JavaScript engine that could work faster.

Chrome initially utilize the WebKit rendering engine to display web site. In 2013, they forked the WebCore component to create their own layout engine Blink. Based on WebKit, Blink only utilize WebKit's "WebCore" components, while substituting other components, such as its own multi-process architecture, in territoryof WebKit's native implementation. Chrome is internally tested with unit testing, automated testing of scripted utilize actions, fuzz testing, as well as WebKit's layout try (99% of which Chrome is claimed to have passed), and versuscommonly accessed domain inside the Google index within 20–30 minutes. Google created Gears for Chrome, which added features for web developers typically relating to the building of web app, including offline support. Google phased out Gears as the same functionality became accessiblein the HTML5 standards.

On January 11, 2011, the Chrome product manager, Mike Jazayeri, announced that Chrome would remove H.264 video codec assistancefor its HTML5 player, citing the desire to bring Google Chrome more in line with the currently accessibleopen codecs accessiblein the Chromium project, which Chrome is based on. Despite this, on November 6, 2012, Google released a version of Chrome on Windows which added hardware-accelerated H.264 video decoding. In October 2013, Cisco announced that it was open-sourcing its H.264 codecs and would cover all fees required.

On February 7, 2012, Google launched Google Chrome Beta for Android 4.0 devices. On many freshdevices with Android 4.1 and later preinstalled, Chrome is the default browser. In May 2017, Google announced a version of Chrome for augmented reality and virtual reality devices.

Version history


Google Chrome features a minimalistic utilize interface, with its utilize-interface principles later being implemented into other browsers. For example, the merging of the address bar and findbar into the omnibox or omnibar Chrome also has a reputation for powerfulbrowser performance.

Bookmarks and settings synchronization

Chrome let users to synchronize their bookmarks, history, and settings across all devices with the browser installed by sending and receiving data through a selectedGoogle Account, which in turn updates all signed-in instances of Chrome. This shouldbe authenticated either through Google credentials, or a sync passphrase.

Web standards support

The effect of the Acid3 tryon Google Chrome 4.0

The first release of Google Chrome passed both the Acid1 and Acid2 try. Beginning with version 4.0, Chrome has passed all aspects of the Acid3 test.

As of May 2011, Chrome has very awesomeassistancefor JavaScript/ECMAScript according to Ecma International's ECMAScript standards conformance Try262 (version ES5.1 May 18, 2012). This tryreports as the final score the number of try a browser failed; hence lower scores are better. In this test, Chrome version 37 scored 10 failed/11,578 passed. For comparison, Firefox 19 scored 193 failed/11,752 passed and Internet Explorer 9 has a score of 600+ failed, while Internet Explorer 10 has a score of 7 failed.

In 2011, on the official CSS 2.1 trysuite by standardization organization W3C, WebKit, the Chrome rendering engine, passes 89.75% (89.38% out of 99.59% covered) CSS 2.1 try.

On the HTML5 web standards test, Chrome 41 scores 518 out of 555 points, placing it ahead of the five most famousdesktop browsers. Chrome 41 on Android scores 510 out of 555 points. Chrome 44 scores 526, only 29 points less than the maximum score.


Chrome periodically retrieves updates of two blacklists (one for phishing and one for malware), and warns users when they attempt to visit a pageflagged as potentially harmful. This service is also angry accessiblefor utilizeby others via a free public API called "Google Safe Browsing API".

Chrome utilize a process-allocation model to sandbox tabs. Using the principle of least privilege, each tab process cannot interact with critical memory functions (e.g. OS memory, utilize files) or other tab processes – similar to Microsoft's "Protected Mode" utilize by Internet Explorer 9 or greater. The Sandbox Team is said to have "taken this existing process boundary and angry it into a jail". This enforces a computer safetymodel whereby there are two levels of multilevel security (utilize and sandbox) and the sandbox shouldonly respond to communication requests initiated by the utilize. On Linux sandboxing utilize the seccomp mode.

In January 2015, TorrentFreak reported that using Chrome when connected to the internet using a VPN shouldbe a serious safetyproblemdue to the browser's assistancefor WebRTC.

On September 9, 2016, it was reported that starting with Chrome 56, users will be warned when they visit insecure HTTP domain to encourage more page to make the transition to HTTPS.

On December 4, 2018, Google announced its Chrome 71 release with freshsafetyfeatures, including a built-in ad featuring system. In addition, Google also announced its plan to crack down on domain that make people involuntarily subscribe to mobile subscription plans.

On September 2, 2020, with the release of Chrome 85, Google extended assistancefor Secure DNS in Chrome for Android. DNS-over-HTTPS (DoH), was plannedto improve securityand disclaimerwhile browsing the web. Under the update, Chrome automatically switches to DNS-over-HTTPS (DoH), if the current DNS provider assistance the feature.

Password management


Since 2008, Chrome has been faulted for not including a master password to prevent casual admissionto a utilize's passwords. Chrome developers have indicated that a master password does not provide real safetyversusdetermined hackers and have refused to implement one. Bugs filed on this problemhave been marked "WontFix". As of February 2014, Google Chrome asks the utilize to enter the Windows accpassword before showing saved passwords.


On Linux, Google Chrome/Chromium shouldshoppasswords in three method:

Google Chrome/Chromium select which shopto utilizeautomatically, based on the desktop environment in use.

Passwords shop in GNOME Keyring or KWallet are encrypted on disk, and admissionto them is controlled by dedicated daemon software. Passwords shop in plain text are not encrypted. Because of this, when either GNOME Keyring or KWallet is in use, any unencrypted passwords that have been shop previously are automatically moved into the encrypted store.

Assistancefor using GNOME Keyring and KWallet was added in version 6, but using these (when available) was not angry the default mode until version 12.

Although Google Chrome/Chromium select which shopto utilizeautomatically, the shopto utilizeshouldalso be specified with a command-line argument:

  • --password-shopgnome (to utilizeGNOME Keyring)
  • --password-shopkwallet (to utilizeKWallet)
  • --password-shopbasic (to utilizethe plain text store)

As of version 45, the Google Chrome password manager is no longer integrated with Keychain, since the interoperability goal is no longer possible.


No safetyvulnerabilities in Chrome were exploited in the three years of Pwn2Own from 2009 to 2011.

At Pwn2Own 2012, Chrome was defeated by a French squadwho utilize zero day exploits in the version of Flash shipped with Chrome to take complete control of a fully patched 64-bit Windows 7 PC using a booby-trapped domainthat overcame Chrome's sandboxing.

Chrome was compromised twice at the 2012 CanSecWest Pwnium. Google's official response to the exploits was providedby Jason Kersey, who congratulated the researchers, noting "We also trustthat both submissions are works of art and deserve wider sharing and recognition." Fixes for these vulnerabilities were deployed within 10 hours of the submission.

A significant number of safetyvulnerabilities in Chrome occur in the Adobe Flash Player. For example, the 2016 Pwn2Own successful attack on Chrome relied on four safetyvulnerabilities. Two of the vulnerabilities were in Flash, one was in Chrome, and one was in the Windows kernel. In 2016, Google announced that it was planning to phase out Flash Player in Chrome, starting in version 53. The first phase of the plan is to disable Flash for advertisementsand "background analytics", with the ultimate goal of disabling it completely by the end of the year, except on specific page that Google has deemed to be broken without it. Flash would then be re-enabled with the exclusion of advertisementsand background analytics on a site-by-pagebasis.

Leaked documents published by WikiLeaks, codenamed Vault 7 and dated from 2013 to 2016, detail the capabilities of the CIA, such as the ability to compromise web browsers (including Google Chrome).

Malware blocking and ad blocking

Google introduced download scanning protection in Chrome 17. In February 2018, Google introduced an ad blocking feature based on suggestion from the Interactive Advertising Bureau. Page that employ invasive advertisementsare given a 30-day warning, after which their advertisementswill be blocked. Consumer Reports suggestedusers install dedicated ad-blocking tools instead, which offer increased safetyversusmalware and tracking.


  • Chrome supported, up to version 45, plug-ins with the Netscape Plugin AppProgramming Interface (NPAPI), so that plug-ins (for example Adobe Flash Player) run as unrestricted separate processes outside the browser and cannot be sandboxed as tabs are. ActiveX is not supported. Since 2010, Adobe Flash has been integral to Chrome and does not need be installed separately. Flash is kept up to date as part of Chrome's own updates. Java applet assistancewas accessiblein Chrome with Java 6 update 12 and above. Assistancefor Java under OS X was deliveredby a Java Update released on May 18, 2010.
  • On August 12, 2009, Google introduced a replacement for NPAPI that is more portable and more secure called Pepper Plugin API (PPAPI). The default bundled PPAPI Flash Player (or Pepper-based Flash Player) was accessibleon Chrome OS first, then replaced the NPAPI Flash Player on Linux from Chrome version 20, on Windows from version 21 (which also reduced Flash crashes by 20%), and eventually came to OS X at version 23.
  • On September 23, 2013, Google announced that it would be deprecating and then removing NPAPI support. NPAPI assistancewas removed from Linux in Chrome release 35. NPAPI plugins like Java shouldno longer work in Chrome (but there are workarounds for Flash by using PPAPI Flash Player on Linux including for Chromium).
  • On April 14, 2015, Google released Chrome v42, disabling the NPAPI by default. This makes plugins that do not have a PPAPI plugin counterpart incompatible with Chrome, such as Java, Silverlight and Unity. However, NPAPI assistancecould be enabled through the chrome://flags[permanent dead link] menu, until the release of version 45 on September 1, 2015, that removed NPAPI assistanceentirely.


Incognito mode

Google Chrome Incognito mode message

The personalbrowsing feature called Incognito mode prevents the browser from locally storing any history information, cookies, pagedata, or form inputs. Downloaded files and bookmarks will be shop. In addition, utilize activity is not hidden from visited domain or the Internet service provider. It may be utilize in web development to preview site as they appear to first-time visitors.

Incognito mode is similar to the personalbrowsing feature in other web browsers. It does not prevent saving in all windows: "You shouldswitch between an incognito window and any regular windows you have open. You'll only be in incognito mode when you're using the incognito window".

The iOS version of Chrome also assistance the optional ability to lock incognito tabs with Face ID, Touch ID or the device's passcode.

Listening capabilities

In June 2015, the Debian developer community discovered that Chromium 43 and Chrome 43 were programmed to download the Hotword Shared Module, which could enable the OK Google voice recognition extension, although by default it was "off". This raised disclaimerconcerns in the media. The module was removed in Chrome 45, which was released on September 1, 2015, and was only showin Chrome 43 and 44.

Registrartracking concerns

Chrome sends details about its users and their activities to Google through both optional and non-optional utilize tracking mechanisms.

Some of the tracking mechanisms shouldbe optionally enabled and disabled through the installation interface and through the browser's options dialog. Unofficial builds, such as SRWare Iron, seek to remove these features from the browser altogether. The RLZ feature is not contain in the Chromium browser either.

In March 2010, Google devised a freshwayto collect installation statistics: the unique ID token contain with Chrome is now utilize for only the first connection that Google Update makes to its server.

The optional recommendationservice contain in Google Chrome has been criticized because it provides the infokind into the Omnibox to the findprovider before the utilize even hits return. This let the findengine to provide URL recommendation, but also provides them with web utilizeinfotied to an IP address.

The optional feature to utilizea web service to assistresolve spelling errors has disclaimerimplications.

A 2019 review by Washington Post technology columnist Geoffrey A. Fowler found that in a typical week of browsing, Chrome permittedthousands of more cookies to be shop than Mozilla Firefox. Fowler pointed out that because of its advertising businesses, despite the disclaimercontrols it offers users, Google is a major producer of third-party cookies and has a financial interest in collecting utilize data; he suggestedswitching to Firefox, Apple Safari, or Chromium-based Brave.

In January 2021, Alphabet stated it was making progress on developing privacy-friendly alternatives which would replace third-party cookies currently being utilize by advertisers and companies to track browsing habits. Google has promised to phase out the utilizeof cookies in their web-browser in 2022, implementing their FLoC technology instead. The announcement came after scrutiny from both the United States and the United Kingdom: the U.K.'s Tournamentand Markets Authority opened a formal probe into Google's claim to end cookie assistancein January of the same year and the antitrust lawsuit versusthe organizationin December 2020 by ten U.S. states.

Chrome's future switch to FLoC has drawn criticism from DuckDuckGo, Brave and the Electronic Frontier Foundation.

Tracking way
Waysup id="cite_ref-iron_117-1" class="reference"> Infosent When Optional?
Installation Randomly generated token contain in an installer; utilize to measure the success rate of Google Chrome once at installation

On installation

No N/A
RLZ identifier Encoded string, according to Google, include non-identifying infoon where Chrome was downloaded from and its installation week; it is utilize to measure promotional campaigns; Google provides source code to decode this string

Shouldbe disabled in Chrome OS. For Chrome browsers running in all other operating systems:

  • Desktop versions of Chrome shouldavoid it by downloading the browser directly from Google.
  • Mobile versions of Chrome always send the RLZ identifier on first launch.
  • On Google findquery
  • On first beginand first utilizeof address bar
clientID Unique identifier along with utilize preferences, logs of utilizemetrics and crashes Un­known Yes Yes
Omnibox predictions Text kind into the address bar is sent to the utilize's findengine when not in incognito mode. When in incognito mode, the recommendation are madeon-device instead. While typing Yes No
Google Update Infoabout how often Chrome is utilize, details about the OS and Chrome version Periodically Partial

No longer in this table: Chrome previously was able to recommendsimilar site when a sitecouldn't be found. For this, in some cases Google servers were contacted. The feature has been removed.

Do Not Track

In February 2012, Google announced that Chrome would implement the Do Not Track (DNT) standard to instructdomain the utilize's desire not to be tracked. The protocol was implemented in version 23. In line with the W3's draft standard for DNT, it is turned off by default in Chrome.


The JavaScript virtual machine utilize by Chrome, the V8 JavaScript engine, has features such as dynamic code generation, hidden class transitions, and precise garbage collection.

In 2008, several domain performed benchmark try using the SunSpider JavaScript Benchmark tool as well as Google's own set of computationally intense benchmarks, which include ray tracing and constraint solving. They unanimously reported that Chrome performed much faster than all competitors versuswhich it had been tested, including Safari (for Windows), Firefox 3.0, Internet Explorer 7, Opera, and Internet Explorer 8.{ However, on October 11, 2010, independent try of JavaScript performance, Chrome has been scoring just behind Opera's Presto engine since it was updated in version 10.5.

On September 3, 2008, Mozilla responded by stating that their own TraceMonkey JavaScript engine (then in beta), was faster than Chrome's V8 engine in some try. John Resig, Mozilla's JavaScript evangelist, further commented on the performance of different browsers on Google's own suite, commenting on Chrome's "decimating" of the other browsers, but he questioned whether Google's suite was representative of real software. He stated that Firefox 3.0 performed poorly on recursion-intensive benchmarks, such as those of Google, because the Mozilla squadhad not implemented recursion-tracing yet.

Two weeks after Chrome's beginin 2008, the WebKit squadannounced a freshJavaScript engine, SquirrelFish Extreme, citing a 36% speed improvement over Chrome's V8 engine.

Like most major web browsers, Chrome utilize DNS prefetching to speed up domainlookups, as do other browsers like Firefox, Safari, Internet Explorer (called DNS Pre-resolution), and in Opera as a UserScript (not built-in).

Chrome formerly utilize their now-deprecated SPDY protocol instead of only HTTP when communicating with servers that assistanceit, such as Google services, Facebook, Twitter. SPDY assistancewas removed in Chrome version 51. This was due to SPDY being replaced by HTTP/2, a standard that was based upon it.

In November 2019, Google said it was working on several "speed badging" systems that allowvisitors know why a siteis taking time to presentup. The variations containeasytext warnings and more subtle signs that indicate a pageis slow. No date has been given for when the badging system will be contain with the Chrome browser.


Screenshot of a Chrome browser crash

A multi-process architecture is implemented in Chrome where, by default, a separate process is allocated to each pageinstance and plugin. This procedure is termed process isolation, and raises safetyand stability by preventing tasks from interfering with each other. An attacker successfully gaining admissionto one appgains admissionto no others, and failure in one instance effect in a UnhappyTab screen of death, similar to the well-known UnhappyMac, but only one tab crashes instead of the whole application. This strategy exacts a fixed per-process cost up front, but effect in less memory bloat over time as fragmentation is confined to each instance and no longer needs further memory allocations. This architecture was later adopted in Safari and Firefox.

Chrome contain a process management utility called Task Manager which allow users see what page and plugins are using the most memory, downloading the most bytes and overusing the CPU and provides the ability to terminate them. Chrome Version 23 ensures its users an improved battery life for the systems supporting Chrome's GPU accelerated video decoding.

Saving site

The desktop edition of Chrome is able to save site as HTML with assets in a "_files" subfolder, or as unprocessed HTML-only document. It also offers an option to save in the MHTML format.


Google Chrome logos
2D motif from March 2011 until October 2015
ContentDesign motif utilize from September 2014 onward for mobile versions and October 2015 onward for desktop versions

By default, the main utilize interface contain back, forward, refresh/cancel and menu buttons. A home button is not present by default, but shouldbe added through the Settings siteto take the utilize to the freshtab siteor a custom home page.

Tabs are the main component of Chrome's utilize interface and have been moved to the top of the window rather than below the controls. This subtle modifycontrasts with many existing tabbed browsers which are based on windows and includetabs. Tabs, with their state, shouldbe transferred seamlessly between window containers by dragging. Each tab has its own set of controls, including the Omnibox.

The Omnibox is a URL box that combines the functions of both the address bar and findbox. If a utilize enters the URL of a pagepreviously searched from, Chrome let pressing Tab to findthe pageagain directly from the Omnibox. When a utilize starts typing in the Omnibox, Chrome provides recommendation for previously visited page (based on the URL or in-sitetext), famousdomain (not necessarily visited before – powered by Google Instant), and famoussearches. Although Instant shouldbe turned off, recommendation based on previously visited page cannot be turned off. Chrome will also autocomplete the URLs of page visited often. If a utilize kind keywords into the Omnibox that don't match any previously visited domain and presses enter, Chrome will conduct the findusing the default findengine.

One of Chrome's differentiating features is the FreshTab Page, which shouldreplace the browser home page and is displayed when a freshtab is created. Originally, this showed thumbnails of the nine most visited domain, along with frequent searches, lastestbookmarks, and recently closed tabs; similar to Internet Explorer and Firefox with Google Toolbar, or Opera's Speed Dial. In Google Chrome 2.0, the FreshTab Sitewas updated to letusers to hide thumbnails they did not wishto appear.

Starting in version 3.0, the FreshTab Sitewas revamped to display thumbnails of the eight most visited domain. The thumbnails could be rearranged, pinned, and removed. Alternatively, a list of text links could be displayed instead of thumbnails. It also features a "Recently closed" bar that present recently closed tabs and a "hint" section that displays tip and tricks for using the browser.

Chrome contain a bookmarks submenu that lists the utilize's bookmarks, provides simpleadmissionto Chrome's Bookmark Manager, and let the utilize to toggle a bookmarks bar on or off.

For web developers, Chrome features an element inspector (Inspect Element), similar to the Firebug browser extension, which let users to look into the DOM and see what makes up the webpage.

Chrome has special URLs that load application-specific site instead of domain or files on disk. Chrome also has a built-in ability to enable experimental features. Originally called about:labs, the address was modify to about:flags to make it less obvious to casual users.

In March 2011, Google introduced a freshsimplified logo to replace the previous 3D logo that had been utilize since the project's inception. Google designer Steve Rura explained the organizationreasoning for the change: "Since Chrome is all about making your web experience as simpleand clutter-free as possible, we refreshed the Chrome icon to better represent these sentiments. A easy icon embodies the Chrome spirit – to make the web quicker, lighter, and easier for all."

In September 2013, Google started making Chrome application "For your desktop". This meant offline access, desktop shortcuts, and less dependence on Chrome—application beginin a window separate from Chrome, and look more like native app.

On January 2, 2019, Google introduced Native Dark Theme for Chrome on Windows 10.

Desktop shortcuts and application

Chrome let users to make local desktop shortcuts that open web app in the browser. The browser, when opened in this way, include none of the regular interface except for the title bar, so as not to "interrupt anything the utilize is trying to do". This let web app to run alongside local software (similar to Mozilla Prism and Fluid).

This feature, according to Google, would be enhanced with the Chrome Web Store, a one-stop web-based web app directory which opened in December 2010.

Chrome Web Store

Announced on December 7, 2010, the Chrome Web Store let users to install web app as extensions to the browser, although most of these extensions function simply as links to famousweb site and/or games, some of the application like Springpad do provide extra features like offline access. The themes and extensions have also been tightly integrated into the freshstore, allowing users to findthe entire catalog of Chrome extras.

The Chrome Web Shopwas opened on February 11, 2011, with the release of Google Chrome 9.0.


Browser extensions are able to changeGoogle Chrome. They are supported by the browser's desktop edition. These extensions are written using web technologies like HTML, JavaScript, and CSS. They are distributed through Chrome Web Store, initially known as the Google Chrome Extensions Gallery. All users with a Google Account are able to add extensions after developing them. Many Chrome extensions, once installed, have admissionto the utilize's data. There are three levels of permissions that an applicationor extension may request. All extensions must have a clear and singular purpose.

On September 9, 2009, Google enabled extensions by default on Chrome's developer channel, and deliveredseveral sample extensions for testing. In December, the Google Chrome Extensions Gallery beta began with approximately 300 extensions. It was launched on January 25, 2010, along with Google Chrome 4.0, containing approximately 1500 extensions.

In 2014, Google started preventing some Windows users from installing extensions not hosted on the Chrome Web Store. The following year Google reported a "75% drop in customer assistanceassistrequests for uninstalling unwanted extensions" which led them to expand this restriction to all Windows and Mac users. Under the rulesof the EULA, Google shouldremove or disable any extensions from a utilize's installation of Chrome.

Notable examples


Starting with Google Chrome 3.0, users shouldinstall themes to alter the appearance of the browser. Many free third-party themes are deliveredin an online gallery, availablethrough a "Receivethemes" button in Chrome's options.

Automatic web sitetranslation

Starting with Google Chrome 4.1 the appadded a built-in translation bar using Google Translate. Language translation is currently accessiblefor 52 languages. When Chrome detects a foreign language other than the utilize's preferred language set during the installation time, it asks the utilize whether or not to translate.

Release channels, cycles and updates

The first production release on December 11, 2008, marked the end of the initial Beta tryperiod and the beginning of production. Shortly thereafter, on January 8, 2009, Google announced an updated release system with three channels: Stable (corresponding to the traditional production), Beta, and Developer preview (also called the "Dev" channel). Where there were before only two channels: Beta and Developer, now there were three. Concurrently, all Developer channel users were moved to the Beta channel along with the promoted Developer release. Google explained that now the Developer channel builds would be less stable and polished than those from the initial Google Chrome's Beta period. Beta users could opt back to the Developer channel as desired.

Each channel has its own release cycle and stability level. The Stable channel updated roughly quarterly, with features and fixes that passed "thorough" testing in the Beta channel. Beta updated roughly monthly, with "stable and complete" features migrated from the Developer channel. The Developer channel updated once or twice per week and was where ideas and features were first publicly exposed "(and sometimes fail) and shouldbe very unstable at times". [Quoted remarks from Google's policiesannouncements.]

Google Chrome Canary appicon

On July 22, 2010, Google announced it would ramp up the speed at which it releases freshstable versions; the release cycles were shortened from quarterly to six weeks for major Stable updates. Beta channel releases now come roughly at the same rate as Stable releases, though approximately one month in advance, while Dev channel releases appear roughly once or twice weekly, allowing time for primaryrelease-critical testing. This faster release cycle also brought a fourth channel: the "Canary" channel, updated everydayfrom a build produced at 09:00 UTC from the most stable of the last 40 revisions. The name refers to the practice of using canaries in coal mines, so if a change "slay" Chrome Canary, it will be blocked from migrating down to the Developer channel, at least until fixed in a subsequent Canary build. Canary is "the most bleeding-edge official version of Chrome and somewhat of a mix between Chrome dev and the Chromium snapshot builds". Canary releases run side by side with any other channel; it is not linked to the other Google Chrome installation and shouldtherefore run different synchronization profiles, themes, and browser preferences. This ensures that fallback functionality remains even when some Canary updates may includerelease-breaking bugs. It does not natively containthe option to be the default browser, although on Windows and OS X it shouldbe set through System Preferences. Canary was Windows-only at first; an OS X version was released on May 3, 2011.

The Chrome beta channel for Android was launched on January 10, 2013; like Canary, it runs side by side with the stable channel for Android. Chrome Dev for Android was launched on April 29, 2015.

All Chrome channels are automatically distributed according to their respective release cycles. The mechanism differs by platform. On Windows, it utilize Google Update, and auto-update shouldbe controlled via Group Policy. Alternatively, users may download a standalone installer of a version of Chrome that does not auto-update. On OS X, it utilize Google Update Service, and auto-update shouldbe controlled via the OS X "defaults" system. On Linux, it allow the system's normal packmanagement system supply the updates. This auto-updating behavior is a key difference from Chromium, the non-branded open-source browser which forms the core of Google Chrome. Because Chromium also serves as the pre-release development trunk for Chrome, its revisions are deliveredas source code and buildable snapshots are produced continuously with each new commit, requiring users to manage their own browser updates.

In March 2021, Google announced that starting with Chrome 94 in the third quarter of 2021, Google Chrome Stable releases will be angry every four weeks, instead of six weeks as they have been since 2010. Also, Google announced a freshrelease channel for system admin and browser embedders with releases every eight weeks.

Release version numbers

Releases are identified by a four-part version number, e.g. 42.0.2311.90 (Windows Stable release April 14, 2015). The components are

Major.minor reflects scheduling policy
Build.patch identifies materialprogression
  • Major represents a product release. These are scheduled 7–8 per year, unlike other programsystems where the major version number updates only with substantial freshcontent.
  • Minor is usually 0. References to version 'x' or 'x.0', e.g. 42.0, refer to this major.minor designation.
  • Build is ever increasing. For a release cycle, e.g. 42.0, there are several builds in the Canary and Developer period. The last build number from Developer is kept throughout Beta and Stable and is locked with the major.minor for that release.
  • Patch restart with each build, incrementing with each patch. The first patch is 0, but usually the first publicly released patch is somewhat higher. In Beta and Stable, only patch increments.

Chromium and Chrome release schedules are linked through Chromium (Major) version Branch Point dates, published annually. The Branch Points precede the final Chrome Developer build (initial) release by 4 days (nearly always) and the Chrome Stable initial release by roughly 53 days.

Example: The version 42 Branch Point was February 20, 2015. Developer builds stopped advancing at build 2311 with release 42.0.2311.4 on February 24, 4 days later. The first Stable release, 42.0.2311.90, was April 14, 2015, 53 days after the Branch Point.

Color management

Chrome assistance color management by using the system-deliveredICC v2 and v4 assistanceon macOS, and from version 22 assistance ICC v2 profiles by default on other platforms.


In Chrome, when not connected to the Internet and an error message displaying "No internet" is present, on the top, an "8-bit" Tyrannosaurus rex is present, but when pressing the zonebar on a keyboard, mouse-clicking on it or tapping it on touch devices, the T-Rex instantly jumps once and dashes across a cactus-ridden desert, revealing it to be an Easter egg in the form of a platform game. The game itself is an unlimitedrunner, and there is no time limit in the game as it progresses faster and periodically tints to a black background. A school Chromebook adminshoulddisable the game.


The current version of Chrome runs on:

As of April 2016, stable 32-bit and 64-bit builds are accessiblefor Windows, with only 64-bit stable builds accessiblefor Linux and macOS. 64-bit Windows builds became accessiblein the developer channel and as canary builds on June 3, 2014, in the beta channel on July 30, 2014, and in the stable channel on August 26, 2014. 64-bit OS X builds became accessibleas canary builds on November 7, 2013, in the beta channel on October 9, 2014, and in the stable channel on November 18, 2014.

Starting with the release of version 89, Chrome will only be supported on Intel/Intel x86 and AMD processors with the SSE3 instruction set.

Operating system Recentversion Assistancestatus
Windows 7 and later 96 2009–
XP SP2+ and Vista 49 2008–2016
macOS 10.11 and later 96 2015–
10.10 87 2014–2021
10.9 67 2013–2018
10.610.8 (x64) 49 2010–2016
10.6 (IA-32) 38 2010–2014
10.5 (IA-32,x64) 21 2010–2012
Linux desktop x64 96 2010–
IA-32 48 2010–2016
Android 6.0 and later 96 2015–
5.x 95 2014–2021
4.4 81 2013–2020
4.1-4.3 (ARMv7,IA-32,x64) 71 2012–2019
4.0 (ARMv7,IA-32) 42 2012–2015
iOS 14.0 and later 96 2020–
13.x 93 2019–2021
12.x 92 2018–2021
11.x 76 2017–2019
10.x 71 2016–2019
9.x 63 2014–2018
8.x , 7.x 47 2013–2016
6.x 37 2012–2015
5.x 29 2011–2013
4.x 23 2010–2012


A beta version for Android 4.0 devices was launched on February 7, 2012, accessiblefor a limited number of countries from Google Play.

Notable features: synchronization with desktop Chrome to provide the same bookmarks and view the same browser tabs, sitepre-rendering, hardware acceleration.

Many of the recentHTML5 features: almost all of the Web Platform's features: GPU-accelerated canvas, including CSS 3D Transforms, CSS animations, SVG, WebSocket (including binary messages), Dedicated Workers; it has overflow scroll support, powerfulHTML5 video support, and freshcapabilities such as IndexedDB, WebWorkers, AppCache and the File APIs, date- and time-pickers, parts of the Media Capture API. Also assistance mobile oriented features such as Device Orientation and Geolocation.

Mobile customizations: swipe gesture tab switching, link preview let zooming in on (multiple) links to ensure the desired one is clicked, font size boosting to ensure readability regardless of the zoom level.

Features missing in the mobile version containsandboxed tabs, Safe Browsing, application or extensions, Adobe Flash (now and in the future), Native Client, and the ability to export utilize data such a list of their opened tabs or their browsing history into portable local files.

Development modify: remote debugging, part of the browser layer has been implemented in Java, communicating with the rest of the Chromium and WebKit code through Java Native Bindings. The code of Chrome for Android is a fork of the Chromium project. It is a priority to upstream most freshand modified code to Chromium and WebKit to resolve the fork.

The April 17, 2012 update contain availability in 31 additional languages and in all countries where Google Play is available. A desktop version of a domainshouldalso be requested as opposed to a mobile version. In addition, Android users shouldnow add bookmarks to their Android home screens if they selectand decide which application canhandle links opened in Chrome.

On June 27, 2012, Google Chrome for Android exited beta and became stable.

Chrome 18.0.1026311, released on September 26, 2012, was the first version of Chrome for Android to assistancemobile devices based on Intel x86.

Starting from version 25, the Chrome version for Android is aligned with the desktop version, and usually freshstable releases are accessibleat the same time between the Android and the desktop version. Google released a separate Chrome for Android beta channel on January 10, 2013, with version 25. As of 2013 a separate beta version of Chrome is accessiblein the Google Play Shopnbsp;– it shouldrun side by side with the stable release.

Chrome OS

Google Chrome is the basis of Google's Chrome OS operating system that ships on specific hardware from Google's manufacturing partners. The utilize interface has a minimalist design resembling the Google Chrome browser. Chrome OS is aimed at users who spend most of their computer time on the Web; the only app on the devices are a browser incorporating a media player and a file manager.

Google announced Chrome OS on July 7, 2009.


Chrome is accessibleon Apple's mobile iOS operating system as Google Chrome for iOS. Released in the Apple ApplicationStore on June 26, 2012, it assistance the iPad, iPhone, and iPod touch, and the current version requires that the device has iOS 12.0 or greater installed. In accordance with Apple's requirements for browsers released through their ApplicationStore, this version of Chrome utilize the iOS WebKit – which is Apple's own mobile rendering engine and components, developed for their Safari browser – therefore it is restricted from using Google's own V8 JavaScript engine. Chrome is the default web browser for the iOS Gmail application.

In a review by Chitika, Chrome was noted as having 1.5% of the iOS web browser market as of July 18, 2012. In October 2013, Chrome had 3% of the iOS browser market.


On Linux distributions, assistancefor 32-bit Intel processors ended in March 2016 although Chromium is still supported. As of Chrome version 26, Linux installations of the browser may be updated only on systems that support GCC v4.6 and GTK v2.24 or later. Thus deprecated systems include (for example) Debian 6's 2.20, and RHEL 6's 2.18.


Assistancefor Google Chrome on Windows XP and Windows Vista ended in April 2016. The last release of Google Chrome that shouldbe run on Windows XP and Windows Vista was version 49.0.2623.112, released on April 7, 2016, then re-released on April 11, 2016.

Assistancefor Google Chrome on Windows 7 was supposed to end upon the announcement on July 15, 2021, and suddenly moved to January 15, 2022, however due to the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic and enterprises are taking more time to migrate to Windows 10 or 11, the end of assistancedate was pushed at least on January 15, 2023, receiving critical safetyand stability updates of the Chrome browser.

"Windows 8 mode" was introduced in 2012 and has since been discontinued. It was deliveredto the developer channel, which enabled Windows 8 and Windows 8.1 users to run Chrome with a full-screen, tablet-optimized interface, with admissionto snapping, sharing, and findfunctionalities. In October 2013, Windows 8 mode on the developer channel modify to utilizea desktop environment mimicking the interface of Chrome OS with a dedicated windowing system and taskbar for web application. This was removed on version 49 and users that have modernize to Windows 10 will lose this feature.


Google dropped assistancefor Mac OS X 10.5 with the release of Chrome 22. Assistancefor 32-bit versions of Chrome ended in November 2014 with the release of Chrome 39. Assistancefor Mac OS X 10.6, 10.7, and 10.8 ended in April 2016 with the release of Chrome 50. Assistancefor OS X 10.9 ended in April 2018 with the release of Chrome 66.[citation needed]


Google Chrome was met with acclaim upon release. In 2008, Matthew Moore of The EverydayTelegraph summarized the verdict of early reviewers: "Google Chrome is attractive, quickand has some impressive freshfeatures..."

Initially, Microsoft reportedly played down the threat from Chrome and predicted that most people would embrace Internet Explorer 8. Opera Software said that "Chrome will strengthen the Web as the largestappplatform in the world". But by February 25, 2010, BusinessWeek had reported that "For the first time in years, energy and resources are being poured into browsers, the ubiquitous software for accessing materialon the Web. Credit for this trend – a boon to consumers – goes to two parties. The first is Google, whose giganticplans for the Chrome browser have shaken Microsoft out of its competitive torpor and forced the programgiant to pay newattention to its own browser, Internet Explorer. Microsoft all but ceased efforts to enhance IE after it triumphed in the last browser war, sending Netscape to its doom. Now it's back in gear." Mozilla said that Chrome's introduction into the web browser market comes as "no real surprise", that "Chrome is not aimed at competing with Firefox", and furthermore that it would not affect Google's revenue relationship with Mozilla.

Chrome's design bridges the gap between desktop and so-called "cloud computing." At the touch of a button, Chrome allow you make a desktop, Start menu, or QuickLaunch shortcut to any Web siteor Web application, blurring the line between what's online and what's inside your PC. For example, I madea desktop shortcut for Google Maps. When you create a shortcut for a Web application, Chrome strips away all of the toolbars and tabs from the window, leaving you with something that feels much more like a desktop appthan like a Web appor page.

— PC World

With its dominance in the web browser market, Google has been accused of using Chrome and Blink development to push freshweb standards that are proposed in-house by Google and subsequently implemented by its services first and foremost. These have led to performance disadvantages and compatibility problemswith competing browsers, and in some cases, developers intentionally refusing to trytheir domain on any other browser than Chrome. Tom Warren of The Verge went as far as comparing Chrome to Internet Explorer 6, the default browser of Windows XP that was often targeted by competitors due to its similar ubiquity in the early 2000s.

In 2019, Google similarly faced criticism over designedmodify to its extensions API for Chrome (dubbed "Manifest V3"), which would inhibit the effectiveness of certain forms of ad blocking programby preventing the utilizeof the WebRequest API to block and changenetwork connections. Google intends extensions to transition to another API known as DeclarativeWebRequest, which let the extension to set up pre-configured termsthat are processed by the browser itself rather than through the extension. However, concerns over how well the API would perform, in combination with concerns over a cap on the number of entries that may be blacklisted, led to criticism that these modify were plannedto inhibit ad blocking (citing Google's vested interest in the online advertising industry). Google cited performance problemsrelatedwith WebRequest, as it requires all network traffic to go through the extension before the siteis loaded, as well as its utilizein malicious extensions, as justification for these modify. In June 2019, it announced that it would increase the aforementioned cap from 30,000 to 150,000 entries to assistquell concerns.


Market share

The most utilize web browser per country in 2020

Chrome overtook Firefox in November 2011, in worldwide usage. As of March 2021, according to StatCounter, Google Chrome had 67% worldwide desktop usage share, making it the most widely utilize web browser.

Along with Safari and Mozilla Firefox, Chrome get a weekend "bump", which boosts its market share by as much as three percentage points on weekends, at the expense of Internet Explorer.

It was reported by StatCounter, a web analytics company, that for the single day of Sunday, March 18, 2012, Chrome was the most utilize web browser in the globefor the first time. Chrome secured 32.7% of the global web browsing on that day, while Internet Explorer followed closely behind with 32.5%.

From May 14–21, 2012, Google Chrome was for the first time responsible for more Internet traffic than Microsoft's Internet Explorer, which long had held its spot as the most utilize web browser in the world. According to StatCounter, 31.88% of web traffic was generated by Chrome for a sustained period of one week and 31.47% by Internet Explorer. Though Chrome had topped Internet Explorer for a single day's usage in the past, this was the first time it had led for one full week.

At the 2012 Google I/O developers' conference, Google claimed that there were 310 million active users of Chrome, almost double the number in 2011, which was stated as 160 million active users.

In June 2013, according to StatCounter, Chrome overtook Internet Explorer for the first time in the US.

In August 2013, Chrome was utilize by 43% of internet users worldwide. This study was done by Statista, which also noted that in North America, 36% of people utilizeChrome, the lowest in the world.

Desktop/laptop browser statistics
Google Chrome
Mozilla Firefox
Microsoft Edge
Internet Explorer
Desktop web browser market share according to StatCounter for May 2020.

As of May 2020, Chrome is the most utilize browser in every country.

Enterprise deployment

In December 2010, Google announced that to make it easier for businesses to utilizeChrome they would provide an official Chrome MSI package. For business utilizeit is helpful to have full-fledged MSI pack that shouldbe customized via transform files (.mst) – but the MSI deliveredwith Chrome is only a very limited MSI wrapper fitted around the normal installer, and many businesses searchthat this arrangement does not meet their needs. The normal downloaded Chrome installer puts the browser in the utilize's local applicationdata directory and provides invisible background updates, but the MSI packwill letinstallation at the system level, providing system admin control over the update process – it was formerly possible only when Chrome was installed using Google Pack. Google also created group policiesobjects to fine-tune the behavior of Chrome in the business environment, for example by setting automatic updates intervals, disabling auto-updates, and configuring a home page. Until version 24 the programis known not to be ready for enterprise deployments with roaming profiles or Terminal Server/Citrix environments.

In 2010, Google first started supporting Chrome in enterprise environments by providing an MSI wrapper around the Chrome installer. Google starting providing group policiesobjects, with more added each release, and today there are more than 500 policyaccessibleto control Chrome's behavior in enterprise environments. In 2016, Google launched Chrome Browser Enterprise Support, a paid service enabling IT administrator admissionto Google experts to assistancetheir browser deployment. In 2019, Google launched Chrome Browser Cloud Management, a dashboard that gives business IT managers the ability to control materialaccessibility, applicationusage and browser extensions installed on its deployed computers.


In September 2008, Google released a hugeportion of Chrome's source code as an open-source project called Chromium. This move enabled third-party developers to study the underlying source code and to assistport the browser to the macOS and Linux operating systems. The Google-authored portion of Chromium is released under the permissive BSD license. Other portions of the source code are topicto a variety of open-source licenses. Chromium is similar to Chrome, but lacks built-in automatic updates and a built-in Flash player, as well as Google branding and has a blue-colored logo instead of the multicolored Google logo. Chromium does not implement utilize RLZ tracking. Initially, the Google Chrome PDF viewer, PDFium, was excluded from Chromium, but was later angry open-source in May 2014. PDFium shouldbe utilize to fill PDF forms.

Developing for Chrome

It is possible to develop app, extensions, and themes for Chrome. They are zipped in a .crx file and includea manifest file that specifies primaryinformation (such as version, name, description, privileges, etc.), and other files for the utilize interface (icons, popups, etc.). Google has an official developer's guide. Chrome has its own web shopwhere users and developers shouldupload and download these app and extensions.

Impersonation by malware

As with Microsoft Internet Explorer, the popularity of Google Chrome has led to the appearance of malware abusing its name. In late 2015, an adware replica of Chrome named "eFast" appeared, which would usurp the Google Chrome installation and hijack file kindassociations to make shortcuts for common file kind and communication protocols link to itself, and inject adsinto web site. Its similar-looking icon was intended to deceive users.

See also


Google Chrome Hack Mod Tricks with Tons of Advices and Bonuses.



Google Chrome
Google Chrome running on Windows 10
Developer(s)GoogleInitial release
Windows XPbeta / September 2, 2008; 13 years ago (2008-09-02)
Windows XP1.0 / December 11, 2008; 12 years ago (2008-12-11)
macOS, Linuxpreview / June 4, 2009; 12 years ago (2009-06-04)
macOS, Linuxbeta / December 8, 2009; 11 years ago (2009-12-08)
Multi­platform5.0 / May 25, 2010; 11 years ago (2010-05-25)
Stable release(s)
Windows, macOS, Linux96.0.4664.45  / 15 November 2021; 14 days ago (15 November 2021)
Android96.0.4664.45  / 15 November 2021; 14 days ago (15 November 2021)
iOS96.0.4664.53  / 18 November 2021; 11 days ago (18 November 2021)
Extended Support Release94.0.4606.113  / 28 October 2021; 32 days ago (28 October 2021)
Preview release(s)
Windows, macOS, Linux97.0.4692.20  / 18 November 2021; 11 days ago (18 November 2021)
Written inC, C++, Assembly, HTML, Java (Android app only), JavaScript, PythonEnginesBlink (WebKit on iOS), V8 JavaScript engineOperating system
PlatformIA-32, x86-64, ARMv7, ARMv8-AIncluded withAvailable in47 languagesTypeWeb browser, mobile browserLicenseProprietary freeware, based on open source components.Website
Google Chrome Cheats Unlimited Gifts Hacks Guides Secrets & Mods.


Tags: Google Chrome tricks tips, Google Chrome hack download, Google Chrome cheat engine, Google Chrome hack tool, Google Chrome cheats online



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