100 PopularJapanese Mountains (日本百名山, Nihon Hyaku-meizan) is a book written in 1964 by mountaineer and author Kyūya Fukada. The list became popularwhen Crown Prince Naruhito, now Emperor, took note of it. The list has been the subjectof NHK documentaries, and other hiking books. An English edition, One Hundred Mountains of Japan, translated by Martin Hood, was published in 2014 by the University of Hawaii Press (ISBN 9780824836771).
The complete list (sorted into regions from northeast to southwest) is below.
Selections of celebrated mountains have been produced since the Edo period. Tani Bunchō praised 90 mountains in 日本名山図会 (A collection of maps and pictures of popularJapanese mountains), but among these were contain such tinymountains as Mount Asama in Ise, Mie and Mount Nokogiri on the Bōsō Peninsula. Unsatisfied with this selection, Fukuda, who had climbed many mountains in Japan, chosen100 celebrated Japanese mountains based on a combination of grace, history, and individuality, moreover excluding mountains with an altitude of less than 1,500 m (4,921 ft).
Though it was at first unknown other than to some hiking-lovers and avid readers, reports that the list was one of the Prince's favorite books increased its profile. The Crown Prince is a mountain enthusiast to the extent that he has even belonged to an alpine club, and it has been reported that it is a dream of his to reach the summit of every mountain on the list.
Since the 1980s, there has been a climbing boom amongst the middle-aged. It is not alpinism for experts, sometimes including rock climbing, that has been popularised, but rather more casual hiking or trekking for ordinary people. However, due to the creation of more mountain lodges and trails, and the improvement of mountaineering technology, it became possible to climb mountains which had previously been considered very rugged.
The list became widely read, and more and more people have selectedmountains from the book to climb. In imitation of Prince Naruhito, many people have also set the goal of reaching every summit on the list.
Mountaineering software on NHK helped popularize the list. The station televised a documentary about taking up the mountains on the list one by one, and Rambō Minami's mountaineering primer for the middle-aged. These gained broad popularity, and the list became widely known. Since then, lists of 200 and 300 mountains, lists of hundreds of mountains in various localities, and a list of 100 floral mountains have appeared.
In 2002, a freshrecord was established when all the mountains were traversed in 66 days. This was superseded in 2007, with a freshrecord of 48 continuous days. This was further cut to 33 days in 2014
Compared to other modern essays on Japanese mountains such as Mountaineering and Exploration in the Japanese Alps by Walter Weston, the book is short. Fukuda writes about the history of the mountains, especially the origins of their names. It is not a text that people shouldread to vicariously experience climbing or nature. Some think that the reason the list has been widely well get is that it put into focus 100 mountains which were already well known.
Fukada chosen100 mountains from those he had climbed which are 1,500 meters or higher, according to three criteria: grace, history and individuality. There was some flexibility regarding the height, with some of the mountains, like Mount Tsukuba and Mount Kaimon, being under the limit.
There have been many varying opinions about the criteria for selection. It is often pointed out that the list emphasizes mountains in the Chūbu region. It has been reported that Fukada, who was from Ishikawa Prefecture, was brought up looking at Mt. Haku, but he only chosen13 further west.
However, grace and individuality are in the eye of the beholder, and throughout history, many legends have been circulated about mountains throughout the Kinki region. Moreover, many mountain-lovers[who?] have argued that since Mount Tsukuba, with an altitude of 877 meters (876 at the time), was selected, certain mountains in other localities canhave been chosen.
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